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Diversity, Volume 13, Issue 5 (May 2021) – 44 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Karstic landscapes are immense reservoirs of biodiversity and range-restricted endemism. Nowhere is this more evident than in the world’s third-largest vertebrate genus Cyrtodactylus with well over 320 species ranging from South Asia to Melanesia. Ancestral character state reconstructions of this ecologically diverse lineage of gecko found that no less than 25% of the species occur in large, independently evolved radiations restricted to karstic landscapes throughout Indochina and Sundaland. Unfortunately, immense financial returns of mineral extraction largely outweigh biodiversity conservation, leaving approximately 99% of karstic landscapes with no legal protection. This underscores the urgent need for their management and conservation. View this paper
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Article
Histovariability and Palaeobiological Implications of the Bone Histology of the Dromornithid, Genyornis newtoni
Diversity 2021, 13(5), 219; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/d13050219 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 1090
Abstract
The bone microstructure of extinct animals provides a host of information about their biology. Although the giant flightless dromornithid, Genyornis newtoni, is reasonably well known from the Pleistocene of Australia (until its extinction about 50–40 Ka), aside from various aspects of its skeletal [...] Read more.
The bone microstructure of extinct animals provides a host of information about their biology. Although the giant flightless dromornithid, Genyornis newtoni, is reasonably well known from the Pleistocene of Australia (until its extinction about 50–40 Ka), aside from various aspects of its skeletal anatomy and taxonomy, not much is known about its biology. The current study investigated the histology of fifteen long bones of Genyornis (tibiotarsi, tarsometatarsi and femora) to deduce information about its growth dynamics and life history. Thin sections of the bones were prepared using standard methods, and the histology of the bones was studied under normal and polarised light microscopy. Our histological analyses showed that Genyornis took more than a single year to reach sexual maturity, and that it continued to deposit bone within the OCL for several years thereafter until skeletal maturity was attained. Thus, sexual maturity and skeletal maturity were asynchronous, with the former preceding the latter. Our results further indicated that Genyornis responded to prevailing environmental conditions, which suggests that it retained a plesiomorphic, flexible growth strategy. Additionally, our analyses of the three long bones showed that the tibiotarsus preserved the best record of growth for Genyornis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolution and Palaeobiology of Flightless Birds)
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Article
Not the Cryptic Species: Diversity of Hipposideros gentilis (Chiroptera: Hipposideridae) in Indochina
Diversity 2021, 13(5), 218; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/d13050218 - 19 May 2021
Viewed by 563
Abstract
We present here the result of phylogenetic analysis for Vietnamese Hipposideros gentilis specimens using 7 nuclear genes and one mitochondrial gene. The complex distribution of divergent mitochondrial DNA lineages contradicts, at least in part, nuclear and morphological data. The most likely explanation [...] Read more.
We present here the result of phylogenetic analysis for Vietnamese Hipposideros gentilis specimens using 7 nuclear genes and one mitochondrial gene. The complex distribution of divergent mitochondrial DNA lineages contradicts, at least in part, nuclear and morphological data. The most likely explanation for this discordance is the historical hybridization between ancestral populations of H. gentilis and H. rotalis/H. khaokhouayensis. Our data supports the species status of H. gentilis, while only partially corroborating its previously proposed subspecies delimitation. We suggest the lowland forest populations from south Vietnam may correspond to their own subspecies. At the same time, the close phylogenetic relationship and morphological similarity of mountain forms from south and central Vietnam to the north Vietnamese populations make doubtful the subspecies status of H. gentilis sinensis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity Aspects in Bats: Genetics, Morphology, Community Structure)
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Article
Traits to Differentiate Lineages and Subspecies of Aegilops tauschii, the D Genome Progenitor Species of Bread Wheat
Diversity 2021, 13(5), 217; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/d13050217 - 19 May 2021
Viewed by 433
Abstract
Aegilops tauschii Coss., the D genome donor of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), is the most promising resource used to broaden the genetic diversity of wheat. Taxonomical studies have classified Ae. tauschii into two subspecies, ssp. tauschii and ssp. strangulata. However, [...] Read more.
Aegilops tauschii Coss., the D genome donor of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), is the most promising resource used to broaden the genetic diversity of wheat. Taxonomical studies have classified Ae. tauschii into two subspecies, ssp. tauschii and ssp. strangulata. However, molecular analysis revealed three distantly related lineages, TauL1, TauL2 and TauL3. TauL1 and TauL3 includes the only ssp. tauschii, whereas TauL2 includes both subspecies. This study aimed to clarify the phylogeny of Ae. tauschii and to find the traits that can differentiate between TauL1, TauL2 and TauL3, or between ssp. tauschii and ssp. strangulata. We studied the genetic and morpho-physiological diversity in 293 accessions of Ae. tauschii, covering the entire range of the species. A total of 5880 high-quality SNPs derived from DArTseq were used for phylogenetic cluster analyses. As a result, we observed wide morpho-physiological variation in each lineage and subspecies. Despite this variation, no key traits can discriminate lineages or subspecies though some traits were significantly different. Of 124 accessions previously lacking the passport data, 66 were allocated to TauL1, 57 to TauL2, and one to TauL3. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Diversity)
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Article
Revisited Molecular Phylogeny of the Genus Sphaerotheca (Anura: Dicroglossidae): The Biogeographic Status of Northernmost Populations and Further Taxonomic Changes
Diversity 2021, 13(5), 216; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/d13050216 - 18 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 628
Abstract
Heretofore, the populations of the genus Sphaerotheca Günther, 1859 (Dicroglossidae) in their northern and western borders laying in Pakistan have been assigned to two species, S. breviceps (Schneider, 1799) and S. strachani (Murray, 1884). The genus originated in the Oriental zoogeographic region and [...] Read more.
Heretofore, the populations of the genus Sphaerotheca Günther, 1859 (Dicroglossidae) in their northern and western borders laying in Pakistan have been assigned to two species, S. breviceps (Schneider, 1799) and S. strachani (Murray, 1884). The genus originated in the Oriental zoogeographic region and comes to close geographic proximity with the Palearctic region in Pakistan. The recent molecular studies have on one hand restricted the distribution range of S. breviceps to the eastern coastal plains of India and, on the other hand, revealed the northern- and westernmost population in India as a separate species, S. pashchima Padhye et al., 2017. This species has recently been synonymized with S. maskeyi (Schleich and Anders, 1998). These taxonomic changes, however, warranted the need for validation of Pakistani Sphaerotheca based on genetic data. We sequenced and analyzed 16S rRNA mitochondrial gene from specimens originating from the Himalayan foothills of Pakistan and compared these with all available GenBank sequences of the genus. Based on this data, we conclude that the Himalayan foothills of Pakistan are occupied by S. maskeyi. Simultaneously, we bring the first record of this species for the Palearctic region. We further suggest that more genetic material from across Pakistan is required to ascertain the validity of S. strachani and for the phylogeographic evaluation of western and northern border populations of the genus. Our geographically wide and revisited molecular phylogeny shows that the genus exhibits genetic diversity suggesting further taxonomic changes. The low level of genetic divergences between S. breviceps and S. magadha Prasad et al., 2019 compared to other species of the genus, indicates that the taxonomic status of S. magadha is questionable. Moreover, we found that S. magadha and S. swani (Mayers and Leviton, 1956) are genetically conspecific with S. breviceps and both should be thus considered its junior synonyms. On the other hand, S. dobsonii and populations from Myanmar need further detailed investigations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Evolutionary History and Biogeography of Herpetofauna)
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Perspective
Taxonomy, Conservation, and the Future of Native Aquatic Snails in the Hawaiian Islands
Diversity 2021, 13(5), 215; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/d13050215 - 18 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 778
Abstract
Freshwater systems are among the most threatened habitats in the world and the biodiversity inhabiting them is disappearing quickly. The Hawaiian Archipelago has a small but highly endemic and threatened group of freshwater snails, with eight species in three families (Neritidae, Lymnaeidae, and [...] Read more.
Freshwater systems are among the most threatened habitats in the world and the biodiversity inhabiting them is disappearing quickly. The Hawaiian Archipelago has a small but highly endemic and threatened group of freshwater snails, with eight species in three families (Neritidae, Lymnaeidae, and Cochliopidae). Anthropogenically mediated habitat modifications (i.e., changes in land and water use) and invasive species (e.g., Euglandina spp., non-native sciomyzids) are among the biggest threats to freshwater snails in Hawaii. Currently, only three species are protected either federally (U.S. Endangered Species Act; Erinna newcombi) or by Hawaii State legislation (Neritona granosa, and Neripteron vespertinum). Here, we review the taxonomic and conservation status of Hawaii’s freshwater snails and describe historical and contemporary impacts to their habitats. We conclude by recommending some basic actions that are needed immediately to conserve these species. Without a full understanding of these species’ identities, distributions, habitat requirements, and threats, many will not survive the next decade, and we will have irretrievably lost more of the unique books from the evolutionary library of life on Earth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Freshwater Mollusk Conservation)
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Article
Contrasting Effects of Regional and Local Climate on the Interannual Variability and Phenology of the Scyphozoan, Aurelia coerulea and Nemopilema nomurai in the Korean Peninsula
Diversity 2021, 13(5), 214; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/d13050214 - 17 May 2021
Viewed by 508
Abstract
The East Asian marginal seas are among the most productive fisheries grounds. However, in recent decades they experienced massive proliferations of jellyfish that pose vast challenges for the management of harvested fish stocks. In the Korean Peninsula, the common bloom-formers Scyphozoan species Aurelia [...] Read more.
The East Asian marginal seas are among the most productive fisheries grounds. However, in recent decades they experienced massive proliferations of jellyfish that pose vast challenges for the management of harvested fish stocks. In the Korean Peninsula, the common bloom-formers Scyphozoan species Aurelia coerulea and Nemopilema nomurai are of major concern due to their detrimental effects on coastal socio-ecological systems. Here, we used pluriannual field observations spanning over 14 years to test the extent of climate influence on the interannual variability and bloom dynamics of A. coerulea and N. nomurai. To depict climate-jellyfish interactions we assessed partitioning effects, direct/indirect links, and the relative importance of hydroclimate forces on the variability of these species. We show that jellyfish interannual patterns and bloom dynamics are shaped by forces playing out at disparate scales. While abundance changes and earlier blooms of A. coerulea were driven by local environmental conditions, N. nomurai interannual patterns and bloom dynamics were linked with regional climate processes. Our results provide a synoptic picture of cascading effects from large scale climate to jellyfish dynamics in the Korean Peninsula that may affect fisheries sustainability due to the prominent detrimental impact these species have in the region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Patterns and Ecology of Jellyfish in Marine Environment)
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The Phylogenetics and Biogeography of the Central Asian Hawkmoths, Hyles hippophaes and H. chamyla: Can Mitogenomics and Machine Learning Bring Clarity?
Diversity 2021, 13(5), 213; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/d13050213 - 17 May 2021
Viewed by 857
Abstract
The western Palaearctic species of the hawkmoth genus Hyles (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) have long been the subject of molecular phylogenetic research. However, much less attention has been paid to the taxa inhabiting the central and eastern Palaearctic, particularly Central Asia, where almost 50% of [...] Read more.
The western Palaearctic species of the hawkmoth genus Hyles (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) have long been the subject of molecular phylogenetic research. However, much less attention has been paid to the taxa inhabiting the central and eastern Palaearctic, particularly Central Asia, where almost 50% of the species diversity of the genus occurs. Yet, many taxonomic conundrums hinder a proper assessment of the true diversity in these moths. One still unresolved group of species includes Hyles hippophaes and Hyles chamyla. Despite a largely overlapping morphology and ecology, a plethora of infraspecific taxa display some unique divergent characters over a wide geographical area. In this study, we undertook a taxonomic assessment of each population and resolved this species complex using an integrative approach. A combination of new computational techniques (DAISY-II) in comparative morphology and recent advances in DNA extraction methods and sequencing of museum specimens (WISC) alongside more traditional genetic approaches allowed testing of the three main phenotypes—bienerti, chamyla and apocyni—in terms of their morphological, mitochondrial and biogeographical integrity, and to elucidate their evolutionary relationships. Our results support the existence of two closely related species, Hyles chamyla and H. hippophaes, but the former species H. apocyni (here discussed as the ecological form apocyni of H. chamyla) is best regarded as a hybrid between H. chamyla and H. h. bienerti. The results indicate that the evolutionary relationship between H. chamyla and H. hippophaes is one of admixture in the context of ongoing ecological differentiation, which has led to shared morphological characters and a blurring of the species boundaries. These results clarify the evolutionary relationships of this species complex and open future research lines, including the analysis of nuclear markers and denser sampling, particularly of H. hippophaes and H. vespertilio in western Europe. Full article
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Article
Linking Habitat and Associated Abiotic Conditions to Predict Fish Hotspots Distribution Areas within La Paz Bay: Evaluating Marine Conservation Areas
Diversity 2021, 13(5), 212; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/d13050212 - 17 May 2021
Viewed by 692
Abstract
Hotspots are priority marine or terrestrial areas with high biodiversity where delineation is essential for conservation, but equally important is their linkage to the environmental policies of the overall region. In this study, fish diversity presences were linked to abiotic conditions and different [...] Read more.
Hotspots are priority marine or terrestrial areas with high biodiversity where delineation is essential for conservation, but equally important is their linkage to the environmental policies of the overall region. In this study, fish diversity presences were linked to abiotic conditions and different habitat types to reveal multi-species and hotspots models predicted by ecological niche modelling methods within the Bay of La Paz, Mexico (south of Gulf of California). The abiotically suitable areas for 217 fish species were identified based on historical (1975–2020) presence data sets and a set of environmental layers related to distances from mangroves and rocky shores habitats, marine substrate, and bottom geomorphology conditions. Hotspot model distribution was delineated from a multi-species model identifying areas with ≥60 species per hectare and was compared to the marine conservation areas such Balandra Protected Natural Area (BPNA), illustrating how these models can be applied to improve the local regulatory framework. The results indicate that (1) there is a need for the BPNA to be enlarged to capture more of the delineated hotspot areas, and thus an update to the management plan will be required, (2) new conservation areas either adjacent or outside of the established BPNA should be established, or (3) Ramsar sites or other priority areas should be subject to legal recognition and a management plan decreed so that these vital habitats and fish diversity can be better protected. Full article
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Article
Advancing Amphibian Conservation through Citizen Science in Urban Municipalities
Diversity 2021, 13(5), 211; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/d13050211 - 15 May 2021
Viewed by 1192
Abstract
As cities adopt mandates to protect, maintain and restore urban biodiversity, the need for urban ecology studies grows. Species-specific information on the effects of urbanization is often a limiting factor in designing and implementing effective biodiversity strategies. In suburban and exurban areas, amphibians [...] Read more.
As cities adopt mandates to protect, maintain and restore urban biodiversity, the need for urban ecology studies grows. Species-specific information on the effects of urbanization is often a limiting factor in designing and implementing effective biodiversity strategies. In suburban and exurban areas, amphibians play an important social-ecological role between people and their environment and contribute to ecosystem health. Amphibians are vulnerable to threats and imbalances in the aquatic and terrestrial environment due to a biphasic lifestyle, making them excellent indicators of local environmental health. We developed a citizen science program to systematically monitor amphibians in a large city in Alberta, Canada, where 90% of pre-settlement wetlands have been removed and human activities continue to degrade, alter, and/or fragment remaining amphibian habitats. We demonstrate successes and challenges of using publicly collected data in biodiversity monitoring. Through amphibian monitoring, we show how a citizen science program improved ecological knowledge, engaged the public in urban biodiversity monitoring and improved urban design and planning for biodiversity. We outline lessons learned to inform citizen science program design, including the importance of early engagement of decision makers, quality control assessment, assessing tensions in program design for data and public engagement goals, and incorporating conservation messaging into programming. Full article
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Article
The Subterranean Fauna of Križna Jama, Slovenia
Diversity 2021, 13(5), 210; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/d13050210 - 15 May 2021
Viewed by 485
Abstract
The karstic cave Križna jama in the South Western part of Slovenia is one of the largest, well known and most beautiful Slovene water caves. The cave consists of more than 8 km of corridors with impressive halls, colossal dripstone formations, a subterranean [...] Read more.
The karstic cave Križna jama in the South Western part of Slovenia is one of the largest, well known and most beautiful Slovene water caves. The cave consists of more than 8 km of corridors with impressive halls, colossal dripstone formations, a subterranean river and numerous lakes. Considering the subterranean fauna, Križna jama has been identified amongst the richest caves in the world. So far, 60 troglobionts, the obligate subterranean species among them 32 aquatic and 28 terrestrial taxa have been recorded and documented. Križna jama has scientific importance, as well as ten subterranean taxa, which have been described based on specimens from this cave. Despite Križna jama is relatively well-studied, new recent unexpected findings are promising. Thus, further discoveries of specialized subterranean species in the cave are expected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hotspots of Subterranean Biodiversity)
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Article
16S rRNA–Based Analysis Reveals Differences in the Bacterial Community Present in Tissues of Choromytilus chorus (Mytilidae, Bivalvia) Grown in an Estuary and a Bay in Southern Chile
Diversity 2021, 13(5), 209; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/d13050209 - 14 May 2021
Viewed by 600
Abstract
Microbiota associated with bivalves have drawn considerable attention because studies have suggested their relevance to the fitness and growth of marine bivalves. Although the mussel Choromytilus chorus is a valuable resource for Chilean aquaculture and fisheries, its microbiota is still unknown. In this [...] Read more.
Microbiota associated with bivalves have drawn considerable attention because studies have suggested their relevance to the fitness and growth of marine bivalves. Although the mussel Choromytilus chorus is a valuable resource for Chilean aquaculture and fisheries, its microbiota is still unknown. In this study, the composition and predicted functions of the bacterial community in tissues of C. chorus specimens grown in an estuary (Nehuentue) and a bay (Hueihue) were investigated. Using 16S rRNA genes as targets, the bacterial abundance in tissues was estimated by quantitative PCR and sequenced via Illumina MiSeq. The abundances of bacteria ranged from 103 to 105 copies of 16S rRNA genes g−1 tissue. In the Nehuentue estuary, the bacterial communities in the tissues were dominated by the Tenericutes phylum, whereas the Tenericutes and Proteobacteria phyla dominated in mussels from Hueihue Bay. Higher numbers of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were observed in tissues from the Nehuentue Estuary than in those from Hueihue Bay. Differences in bacterial community compositions in tissues between both locations were confirmed by nonmetric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) and Venn diagram analysis. In addition, linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) revealed that the Mollicutes class and Actynomycetales order were key phylotypes in tissues from the Nehuentue Estuary and Hueihue Bay, respectively. Our analysis also predicted a high abundance of sequences assigned to heterotrophy; however, relatively high functional diversity was also found in tissues from Hueihue Bay. This work represents our first attempt to elucidate the C. chorus microbiota in contrasting Chilean aquatic environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Diversity in Aquatic Systems)
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Article
Shedding Light on the Dark Ages: Sketching Potential Trade Relationships in Early Medieval Romania through Mitochondrial DNA Analysis of Sheep Remains
Diversity 2021, 13(5), 208; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/d13050208 - 13 May 2021
Viewed by 984
Abstract
Southeast Europe has played an important role in shaping the genetic diversity of sheep due to its proximity to the Danubian route of transport from the Near East into Europe, as well as its possible role as a post-domestication migration network and long [...] Read more.
Southeast Europe has played an important role in shaping the genetic diversity of sheep due to its proximity to the Danubian route of transport from the Near East into Europe, as well as its possible role as a post-domestication migration network and long tradition of sheep breeding. The history of Romania and, in particular, the historical province of Dobruja, located on the shore of the Black Sea, has been influenced by its geographical position at the intersection between the great powers of the Near East and mainland Europe, with the Middle Ages being an especially animated time in terms of trade, migration, and conflict. In this study, we analyzed the mitochondrial control region of five sheep originating from the Capidava archaeological site (Dobruja, Southeast Romania), radiocarbon dated to the Early Middle Ages (5–10th century AD), in order to better understand the genetic diversity of local sheep populations and human practices in relation to this particular livestock species. The analyses illustrate high haplotype diversity in local medieval sheep, as well as possible genetic continuity in the region. A higher tendency for North to South interaction, rather than East to West, is apparent, together with a lack of interaction along the Asian route. Continuous interaction between the First Bulgarian Empire, which occupied Dobruja starting with the 7th century AD, and the Byzantine Empire is indicated. These results might suggest expanding trade in Southeast Romania in the Early Middle Ages. Full article
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Article
Super Cooling Point Phenotypes and Cold Resistance in Hyles euphorbiae Hawk Moths from Different Climate Zones
Diversity 2021, 13(5), 207; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/d13050207 - 13 May 2021
Viewed by 422
Abstract
The spurge hawkmoth Hyles euphorbiae L. (Sphingidae) comprises a remarkable species complex with still not fully resolved taxonomy. Its extensive natural distribution range covers diverse climatic zones. This predestinates particular populations to cope with different local seasonally unfavorable environmental conditions. The ability of [...] Read more.
The spurge hawkmoth Hyles euphorbiae L. (Sphingidae) comprises a remarkable species complex with still not fully resolved taxonomy. Its extensive natural distribution range covers diverse climatic zones. This predestinates particular populations to cope with different local seasonally unfavorable environmental conditions. The ability of the pupae to overcome outer frosty conditions is well known. However, the differences between two main ecotypes (‘euphorbiae’ and ‘tithymali’) in terms of the inherent degree of frost tolerance, its corresponding survival strategy, and underlying mechanism have not been studied in detail so far. The main aim of our study was to test the phenotypic exhibition of pupae (as the relevant life cycle stadia to outlast unfavorable conditions) in response to combined effects of exogenous stimuli, such as daylight length and cooling regime. Namely, we tested the turnout of subitan (with fast development, unadapted to unfavorable conditions) or diapause (paused development, adapted to unfavorable external influences and increased resistance) pupae under different conditions, as well as their mortality, and we measured the super cooling point (SCP) of whole pupae (in vivo) and pupal hemolymph (in vitro) as phenotypic indicators of cold acclimation. Our results show higher cold sensitivity in ‘tithymali’ populations, exhibiting rather opportunistic and short-termed cold hardiness, while ‘euphorbiae’ produces a phenotype of seasonal cold-hardy diapause pupae under a combined effect of short daylight length and continuous cold treatment. Further differences include the variability in duration and mortality of diapause pupae. This suggests different pre-adaptations to seasonal environmental conditions in each ecotype and may indicate a state of incipient speciation within the H. euphorbiae complex. Full article
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Editorial
Boreal Bird Ecology, Management and Conservation
Diversity 2021, 13(5), 206; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/d13050206 - 13 May 2021
Viewed by 429
Abstract
The circumpolar boreal forest covers approximately 12,000,000 km2 and is one of the world’s most extensive biomes [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Boreal Bird Ecology, Management and Conservation)
Article
Reusing Old and Producing New Data Is Useful for Species Delimitation in the Taxonomically Controversial Iberian Endemic Pair Petrocoptis montsicciana/P. pardoi (Caryophyllaceae)
Diversity 2021, 13(5), 205; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/d13050205 - 12 May 2021
Viewed by 479
Abstract
Petrocoptis montsicciana and P. pardoi are two Iberian endemic taxa of Caryophyllaceae family with an unclear taxonomic delimitation, being variously treated as independent species, subspecies or even synonyms. In the present study, allozyme raw data obtained in the early 2000s have been reused [...] Read more.
Petrocoptis montsicciana and P. pardoi are two Iberian endemic taxa of Caryophyllaceae family with an unclear taxonomic delimitation, being variously treated as independent species, subspecies or even synonyms. In the present study, allozyme raw data obtained in the early 2000s have been reused with improved tools to survey genetic structure, and complemented with modeling and niche comparative analyses to shed light on species delimitation. Genetic structure was investigated using four approaches: Bayesian clustering, Monmonier’s algorithm, Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA), and Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA). Ecological niche differences have been assessed through Ecological Niche Modeling (ENM) using MaxEnt, and Principal Component Analysis using both occurrence records and background climate (PCA-env). Genetic analysis confirms the distinction between both taxa, and the scenario of a progenitor–derivative (P–D) is suggested. In agreement with genetic data, niche analysis shows clear differences between their climate regarding species occurrences and background spaces. Climate divergence could be explained, at least partially, by the abundance of rocks where species live although differences at the microclimate instead of the regional climate should be explored in future research. Given the genetic distinction between P. montsicciana and P. pardoi, both taxa should be regarded as separate ‘Management Units’ (MUs). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Conservation Genetics and Biogeography of Seed Plant Species)
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Burrowing Parrots Cyanoliseus patagonus as Long-Distance Seed Dispersers of Keystone Algarrobos, Genus Prosopis, in the Monte Desert
Diversity 2021, 13(5), 204; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/d13050204 - 12 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 800
Abstract
Understanding of ecosystem structure and functioning requires detailed knowledge about plant–animal interactions, especially when keystone species are involved. The recent consideration of parrots as legitimate seed dispersers has widened the range of mechanisms influencing the life cycle of many plant species. We examined [...] Read more.
Understanding of ecosystem structure and functioning requires detailed knowledge about plant–animal interactions, especially when keystone species are involved. The recent consideration of parrots as legitimate seed dispersers has widened the range of mechanisms influencing the life cycle of many plant species. We examined the interactions between the burrowing parrot Cyanoliseus patagonus and two dominant algarrobo trees (Prosopis alba and Prosopis nigra) in the Monte Desert, Argentina. We recorded the abundance and foraging behaviour of parrots; quantified the handling, consumption, wasting, and dispersal of ripe and unripe pods; and tested the viability of soft and hard ripe seeds wasted and transported by parrots. We found a high abundance of burrowing parrots. They predated on soft seeds from unripe pods while exclusively feeding upon pulp wrapping hard seeds from ripe pods. Frequent pod wasting beneath the plant or transport at a distance invariably implied the dispersal of multiple seeds in each event. Moreover, soft seeds retained viability after desiccation outside the mother plant, suggesting effective seed dispersal after partial pod predation due to a predator satiation effect. In about half of the foraging flocks, at least one parrot departed in flight with pods in its beak, with 10–34% of the flock components moving pods at distances averaging 238 m (P. alba) and 418 m (P. nigra). A snapshot sampling of faeces from livestock and wild mammals suggested a low frequency of seed dispersal by endozoochory and secondary dispersal by ants and dung beetles. The nomadic movements and long flights of burrowing parrots between breeding and foraging sites can lead to the dispersal of huge amounts of seeds across large areas that are sequentially exploited. Further research should evaluate the role of the burrowing parrot as a functionally unique species in the structure of the Monte Desert woods and the genetic structure of algarrobo species. Full article
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Article
Diversity of Pod Shape in Pisum
Diversity 2021, 13(5), 203; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/d13050203 - 12 May 2021
Viewed by 366
Abstract
The seed-containing pod is the defining structure of plants in the legume family, yet pods exhibit a wide range of morphological variation. Within a species pod characters are likely to be correlated with reproductive strategy, and within cultivated forms will correspond to aspects [...] Read more.
The seed-containing pod is the defining structure of plants in the legume family, yet pods exhibit a wide range of morphological variation. Within a species pod characters are likely to be correlated with reproductive strategy, and within cultivated forms will correspond to aspects of yield determination and/or end use. Here variation in pod size, described as pod length: pod width ratio, has been analyzed in pea germplasm represented by 597 accessions. This pod size variation is discussed with respect to population structure and to known classical pod morphology mutants. Variability of the pod length: width ratio can be explained by allelic variation at two genetic loci that may correspond to organ-specific negative regulators of growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Legume Evolution and Diversity)
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Article
On the Use of Stable Hydrogen Isotope Measurements (δ2H) to Discern Trophic Level in Avian Terrestrial Food Webs
Diversity 2021, 13(5), 202; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/d13050202 - 12 May 2021
Viewed by 604
Abstract
The measurement of stable hydrogen isotope ratios (δ2H) in animal tissues is a popular means of inferring spatial origins and migratory connections. However, the use of this isotope to infer diet and potentially trophic position remains poorly understood, especially in non-aquatic [...] Read more.
The measurement of stable hydrogen isotope ratios (δ2H) in animal tissues is a popular means of inferring spatial origins and migratory connections. However, the use of this isotope to infer diet and potentially trophic position remains poorly understood, especially in non-aquatic terrestrial ecosystems. In many animal communities, tissue δ15N values are strongly associated with trophic position. Correlations between tissue δ2H and δ15N are expected, then, if δ2H is affected by trophic enrichment of 2H. In addition, within sites, we would expect higher tissue δ2H values in insectivorous species compared to granivores or nectarivores. We tested these hypotheses for two resident avian communities in Nigeria consisting of 30 species representing a range of dietary guilds (granivores, frugivores, nectarivores, omnivores, insectivores) by comparing feather δ2H, δ15N and δ13C values. We found considerable isotopic overlap among all guilds except granivores, with no clear pattern of enrichment in 2H with trophic position. However, at one of our sites (open scrubland), feather δ2H was positively correlated with feather δ15N (R2 = 0.30) compared to a closed canopy forest site (R2 = 0.09). Our results indicate weak evidence for predictable trophic enrichment in 2H in terrestrial environments and indicate that controlled studies are now required to definitively elucidate the behavior of H isotopes in terrestrial food webs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stable Isotope Ecology)
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Article
Secondary Serpentine Forests of Poland as a Refuge for Vascular Flora
Diversity 2021, 13(5), 201; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/d13050201 - 12 May 2021
Viewed by 488
Abstract
The aim of present study was to determine the role of secondary, serpentine forests in Poland in the protection of rare vascular plant species. On the basis of 95 phytosociological relevés collected between 2009 and 2020, we identified the main types of serpentine [...] Read more.
The aim of present study was to determine the role of secondary, serpentine forests in Poland in the protection of rare vascular plant species. On the basis of 95 phytosociological relevés collected between 2009 and 2020, we identified the main types of serpentine forest communities and assessed their diversity indices. Ordination methods were used to determine the relationship between the degree of transformation of forest communities (reflected by the occurrence of alien and nitrophilic species) and the presence of endangered species in their undergrowth including the environmental background. We distinguished four types of communities: thermophilic and mesophilic pine plantations (both secondary in origin) as well as thermophilous oak forest and acidophilous oak–hornbeam forest (semi-natural and close to natural in character, respectively). Rare and endangered species were unevenly distributed and concentrated in oak forest (16 species) and thermophilic pine plantation (nine species). The endangered species mainly preferred sites at higher altitudes and with higher slope inclination, light availability, and soil reaction. We did not confirm that the presence of alien or nitrophilic species negatively influenced the ability of studied forests to preserve rare plants. As secondary forests can still harbor endangered species, they should fulfil complementary functions in the nature protection system. Full article
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Article
Does Hyperoxia Restrict Pyrenean Rock Lizards Iberolacerta bonnali to High Elevations?
Diversity 2021, 13(5), 200; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/d13050200 - 11 May 2021
Viewed by 651
Abstract
Ectothermic animals living at high elevation often face interacting challenges, including temperature extremes, intense radiation, and hypoxia. While high-elevation specialists have developed strategies to withstand these constraints, the factors preventing downslope migration are not always well understood. As mean temperatures continue to rise [...] Read more.
Ectothermic animals living at high elevation often face interacting challenges, including temperature extremes, intense radiation, and hypoxia. While high-elevation specialists have developed strategies to withstand these constraints, the factors preventing downslope migration are not always well understood. As mean temperatures continue to rise and climate patterns become more extreme, such translocation may be a viable conservation strategy for some populations or species, yet the effects of novel conditions, such as relative hyperoxia, have not been well characterised. Our study examines the effect of downslope translocation on ectothermic thermal physiology and performance in Pyrenean rock lizards (Iberolacerta bonnali) from high elevation (2254 m above sea level). Specifically, we tested whether models of organismal performance developed from low-elevation species facing oxygen restriction (e.g., hierarchical mechanisms of thermal limitation hypothesis) can be applied to the opposite scenario, when high-elevation organisms face hyperoxia. Lizards were split into two treatment groups: one group was maintained at a high elevation (2877 m ASL) and the other group was transplanted to low elevation (432 m ASL). In support of hyperoxia representing a constraint, we found that lizards transplanted to the novel oxygen environment of low elevation exhibited decreased thermal preferences and that the thermal performance curve for sprint speed shifted, resulting in lower performance at high body temperatures. While the effects of hypoxia on thermal physiology are well-explored, few studies have examined the effects of hyperoxia in an ecological context. Our study suggests that high-elevation specialists may be hindered in such novel oxygen environments and thus constrained in their capacity for downslope migration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolutionary Ecology of Lizards)
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Article
Ojo Guareña: A Hotspot of Subterranean Biodiversity in Spain
Diversity 2021, 13(5), 199; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/d13050199 - 08 May 2021
Viewed by 490
Abstract
Ojo Guareña Natural Monument in Burgos (Spain) is an important and large karstic system. It consists of more than 110 km of surveyed galleries, and it has rich sources of organic material from the surface and permanent water circulation. It is the fourth [...] Read more.
Ojo Guareña Natural Monument in Burgos (Spain) is an important and large karstic system. It consists of more than 110 km of surveyed galleries, and it has rich sources of organic material from the surface and permanent water circulation. It is the fourth largest cave system in the Iberian Peninsula, and one of the 10 largest in Europe. Ojo Guareña also ranks 23rd among the world’s largest caves. To date, only volcanic caves in the Canary Islands, in which between 28 and 38 subterranean species occur, are considered subterranean diversity hotspots in Spain. Here, we provide the first list of subterranean taxa present in Ojo Guareñ, which is comprised of 54 taxa that includes 46 stygobiotic and eight troglobiotic species (some still unidentified at the species level), revealing Ojo Guareña as the largest known subterranean biodiversity hotspot in Spain and Portugal. In addition, we provide a list of an additional 48 taxa, 34 stygophiles and 14 troglophiles, found in the system, whose ecological status could change with detailed biological studies, which may change the number of strictly subterranean species present in the system. Indeed, at present, these numbers are provisional as they correspond to a small part of this sizeable cave system. The biodiversity of large areas of the system remains unknown as these areas have yet to be explored from the biological point of view. In addition, a large number of samples of both terrestrial and aquatic fauna are still under study by specialists. Furthermore, evidence of cryptic species within Bathynellacea (Crustacea) indicates an underestimation of biodiversity in the karstic system. Despite these limitations, the data available reveal the typical uneven distribution of subterranean aquatic fauna, and suggest that the great heterogeneity of the microhabitats in this wide and highly connected karstic extension led to the great richness of aquatic subterranean species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hotspots of Subterranean Biodiversity)
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Communication
Reintroduction of the Golden Conure (Guaruba guarouba) in Northern Brazil: Establishing a Population in a Protected Area
Diversity 2021, 13(5), 198; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/d13050198 - 08 May 2021
Viewed by 564
Abstract
Brazil has the highest number of parrots in the world and the greatest number of threatened species. The Golden Conure is endemic to the Brazilian Amazon forest and it is currently considered as threatened by extinction, although it is fairly common in captivity. [...] Read more.
Brazil has the highest number of parrots in the world and the greatest number of threatened species. The Golden Conure is endemic to the Brazilian Amazon forest and it is currently considered as threatened by extinction, although it is fairly common in captivity. Here we report the first reintroduction of this species. The birds were released in an urban park in Belem, capital of Para State, where the species was extinct more than a century ago. Birds were trained to recognize and consume local food and to avoid predators. After the soft-release, with food supplementation and using nest boxes, we recorded breeding activity in the wild. The main challenges before the release were the territorial disputes within the aviary and the predation by boa snakes. During the post-release monitoring the difficulties were the fast dispersion of some individuals and the dangers posed by anthropic elements such as power lines that caused some fatalities. Released birds were very successful at finding and consuming native foods, evading predators, and one pair reproduced successfully. Monitoring continues and further releases are programmed to establish an ecologically viable population. Full article
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Article
The Diversity of Root-Associated Endophytic Fungi from Four Epiphytic Orchids in China
Diversity 2021, 13(5), 197; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/d13050197 - 30 Apr 2021
Viewed by 593
Abstract
Root-associated endophytic fungi (RAF) are found asymptomatically in almost all plant groups. However, little is known about the compositions and potential functions of RAF communities associated with most Orchidaceae species. In this study, the diversity of RAF was examined in four wild epiphytic [...] Read more.
Root-associated endophytic fungi (RAF) are found asymptomatically in almost all plant groups. However, little is known about the compositions and potential functions of RAF communities associated with most Orchidaceae species. In this study, the diversity of RAF was examined in four wild epiphytic orchids, Acampe rigida, Doritis pulcherrima, Renanthera coccinea, and Robiquetia succisa, that occur in southern China. A culture-independent method involving Illumina amplicon sequencing, and an in vitro culture method, were used to identify culturable fungi. The RAF community diversity differed among the orchid roots, and some fungal taxa were clearly concentrated in a certain orchid species, with more OTUs being detected. By investigating mycorrhizal associations, the results showed that 28 (about 0.8%) of the 3527 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) could be assigned as OMF, while the OTUs of non-mycorrhizal fungal were about 99.2%. Among the OMFs, Ceratobasidiaceae OTUs were the most abundant with different richness, followed by Thelephoraceae. In addition, five Ceratobasidium sp. strains were isolated from D. pulcherrima, R. succisa, and R. coccinea roots with high separation rates. These culturable Ceratobasidium strains will provide materials for host orchid conservation and for studying the mechanisms underlying mycorrhizal symbiosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microbial Diversity and Culture Collections)
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Article
DNA Barcoding of Marine Mollusks Associated with Corallina officinalis Turfs in Southern Istria (Adriatic Sea)
Diversity 2021, 13(5), 196; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/d13050196 - 30 Apr 2021
Viewed by 523
Abstract
Presence of mollusk assemblages was studied within red coralligenous algae Corallina officinalis L. along the southern Istrian coast. C. officinalis turfs can be considered a biodiversity reservoir, as they shelter numerous invertebrate species. The aim of this study was to identify mollusk species [...] Read more.
Presence of mollusk assemblages was studied within red coralligenous algae Corallina officinalis L. along the southern Istrian coast. C. officinalis turfs can be considered a biodiversity reservoir, as they shelter numerous invertebrate species. The aim of this study was to identify mollusk species within these settlements using DNA barcoding as a method for detailed identification of mollusks. Nine locations and 18 localities with algal coverage range above 90% were chosen at four research areas. From 54 collected samples of C. officinalis turfs, a total of 46 mollusk species were identified. Molecular methods helped identify 16 gastropod, 14 bivalve and one polyplacophoran species. COI sequences for two bivalve species (Musculus cf. costulatus (Risso, 1826) and Gregariella semigranata (Reeve, 1858)) and seven gastropod species (Megastomia winfriedi Peñas & Rolán, 1999, Eatonina sp. Thiele, 1912, Eatonina cossurae (Calcara, 1841), Crisilla cf. maculata (Monterosato, 1869), Alvania cf. carinata (da Costa, 1778), Vitreolina antiflexa (Monterosato, 1884) and Odostomia plicata (Montagu, 1803)) represent new BINs in BOLD database. This study contributes to new findings related to the high biodiversity of mollusks associated with widespread C. officinalis settlements along the southern coastal area of Istria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Biodiversity of Marine Invertebrates)
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Article
Tomato Landraces Are Competitive with Commercial Varieties in Terms of Tolerance to Plant Pathogens—A Case Study of Hungarian Gene Bank Accessions on Organic Farms
Diversity 2021, 13(5), 195; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/d13050195 - 30 Apr 2021
Viewed by 776
Abstract
Landraces are generally neglected by industrialized agriculture, regardless of their potential to provide valuable genetic material for breeding and to diversifying the available assortment for producers and markets. They may also excel in certain plant protection issues with possible resistance or tolerance to [...] Read more.
Landraces are generally neglected by industrialized agriculture, regardless of their potential to provide valuable genetic material for breeding and to diversifying the available assortment for producers and markets. They may also excel in certain plant protection issues with possible resistance or tolerance to plant pathogens. This is the first report on the disease susceptibility traits of Hungarian on certain indeterminate and determinate tomato gene bank accessions under on-farm organic conditions. For this, a three-year on-farm experiment was conducted in two management systems, open-field and protected. Yield and disease symptoms data obtained from ten tomato landraces were compared to commercial varieties. The incidence and severity of three important diseases (caused by late blight ‘Phytophthora infestans’, early blight ‘Alternaria solani’ and Septoria leafspot ‘Septoria lycopersici’), as well as yield, were recorded and assessed. According to these results, there were no significant difference between landraces and control varieties (San Marzano, Kecskeméti 549) regarding the studied parameters, and year was a determinant factor in the occurrence and severity of the infection of the studied diseases. In 2016, rainy, humid weather induced a severe late blight infection, causing serious damage to the open field, while the weather in 2015 and 2017 was favorable for tomato production and our measurements. There were some differences within and between landraces in terms of susceptibility. The investigation revealed that certain accessions can be highly recommended, e.g., the indeterminate ‘Fadd’ (RCAT030275) and ‘Mátrafüred’ (RCAT057656) had suitably high yields with significantly lower susceptibility to late blight, and the determinate ‘Szentlőrinckáta’ (RCAT078726) with high yield as well as tolerance to early blight is also recommendable, but it is sensitive to late blight under an adverse environment. This study suggests that landraces are competitive with the studied commercial varieties under organic production systems. Considering yield and the prevention of the major diseases of tomato, the studied tomato gene bank accessions are recommended for organic field and protected management systems. Full article
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Article
Genetic Introgression and Morphological Variation in Naked-Back Bats (Chiroptera: Mormoopidae: Pteronotus Species) along Their Contact Zone in Central America
Diversity 2021, 13(5), 194; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/d13050194 - 30 Apr 2021
Viewed by 1103
Abstract
Two sibling bare-backed bat species (Pteronotus fulvus and P. gymnonotus) have been traditionally differentiated by their size. However, intermediate specimens between the two species have been found in sympatric populations along southern Mexico and it has been suggested that they may [...] Read more.
Two sibling bare-backed bat species (Pteronotus fulvus and P. gymnonotus) have been traditionally differentiated by their size. However, intermediate specimens between the two species have been found in sympatric populations along southern Mexico and it has been suggested that they may be the outcome of a hybridization process between the two species. We used one mitochondrial (COI), three nuclear markers (PRKCL, STAT5A and RAG2) and 13 microsatellites to explore the evolutionary relationships between these two species and elucidate whether the intermediate morphotypes correspond to hybrid individuals. These markers have been analyzed in sympatric and allopatric populations of the two species plus the closely related species Pteronotus davyi. We confirmed the species-level differentiation of the three lineages (P. fulvus, P. davyi and P. gymnonotus), but the phylogenetic hypotheses suggested by the nuclear and mitochondrial markers were discordant. We confirm that the discordance between markers is due to genetic introgression through the mitochondrial capture of P. fulvus in P. gymnonotus populations. Such introgression was found in all P. gymnonotus specimens across its sympatric distribution range (Mexico to Costa Rica) and is related to expansion/retraction species distribution pulses associated with changes in forest distribution during the Quaternary climate cycles. Microsatellite analyses showed contemporary genetic contact between the two sympatric species and 3.0% of the samples studied were identified as hybrids. In conclusion, we found a historical and asymmetric genetic introgression (through mitochondrial capture) of P. fulvus into P. gymnonotus in Mexico and Central America and a limited contemporary gene exchange between the two species. However, no relationship was found between hybridization and the intermediate-sized specimens from southern Mexico, which might likely result from a clinal variation with latitude. These results confirm the need for caution when using forearm size to identify these species in the field and when differentiating them in the laboratory based on mitochondrial DNA alone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity Aspects in Bats: Genetics, Morphology, Community Structure)
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Article
Assessing Temporal Patterns and Species Composition of Glass Eel (Anguilla spp.) Cohorts in Sumatra and Java Using DNA Barcodes
Diversity 2021, 13(5), 193; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/d13050193 - 29 Apr 2021
Viewed by 677
Abstract
Anguillid eels are widely acknowledged for their ecological and socio-economic value in many countries. Yet, knowledge regarding their biodiversity, distribution and abundance remains superficial—particularly in tropical countries such as Indonesia, where demand for anguillid eels is steadily increasing along with the threat imposed [...] Read more.
Anguillid eels are widely acknowledged for their ecological and socio-economic value in many countries. Yet, knowledge regarding their biodiversity, distribution and abundance remains superficial—particularly in tropical countries such as Indonesia, where demand for anguillid eels is steadily increasing along with the threat imposed by river infrastructure developments. We investigated the diversity of anguillid eels on the western Indonesian islands of Sumatra and Java using automated molecular classification and genetic species delimitation methods to explore temporal patterns of glass eel cohorts entering inland waters. A total of 278 glass eels were collected from monthly samplings along the west coast of Sumatra and the south coast of Java between March 2017 and February 2018. An automated, DNA-based glass eel identification was performed using a DNA barcode reference library consisting of 64 newly generated DNA barcodes and 117 DNA barcodes retrieved from BOLD for all nine Anguilla species known to occur in Indonesia. Species delimitation methods converged in delineating eight Molecular Operational Taxonomic Units (MOTUs), with A. nebolusa and A. bengalensis being undistinguishable by DNA barcodes. A total of four MOTUs were detected within the glass eel samples, corresponding to Anguilla bicolor, A. interioris, A. marmorata, and A. nebulosa/A. bengalensis. Monthly captures indicated that glass eel recruitment peaks in June, during the onset of the dry season, and that A. bicolor is the most prevalent species. Comparing indices of mitochondrial genetic diversity between yellow/silver eels, originating from several sites across the species range distribution, and glass eels, collected in West Sumatra and Java, indicated a marked difference. Glass eels displayed a much lower diversity than yellow/silver eels. Implications for the management of glass eel fisheries and species conservation are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aquatic Organisms Research with DNA Barcodes)
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Article
Mining Sorghum Biodiversity—Potential of Dual-Purpose Hybrids for Bio-Economy
Diversity 2021, 13(5), 192; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/d13050192 - 29 Apr 2021
Viewed by 475
Abstract
Sweet, grain, and dual-purpose sorghums differ in a number of important traits, including biomass production, total solutes in the stem juice, and sugar accumulation across the stem. Ten dual-purpose hybrids, two sweet genotypes, and two grain landraces of sorghums were characterized under temperate [...] Read more.
Sweet, grain, and dual-purpose sorghums differ in a number of important traits, including biomass production, total solutes in the stem juice, and sugar accumulation across the stem. Ten dual-purpose hybrids, two sweet genotypes, and two grain landraces of sorghums were characterized under temperate environmental conditions to determine their potential for bioethanol production. Five sorghum hybrids (Ganymed, Hannibal, Tarzan, Merlin, and Zerberus) performed better with respect to cane yield, juice yield, potential sugar, and ethanol yields compared to sweet and grain genotypes. While the sweet genotype KIT1 produced the highest sugar concentration in the stem, the lowest concentration was produced by the grain landrace Razinieh. The study showed that plant height, leaf number, leaf weight, cane yield, and juice yield were positively correlated with the sugar yield in fresh stalk. Sugar accumulation was higher in the central internodes of all genotypes. Clustering analysis showed that sweet genotypes are located more closely to dual-purpose hybrids than grain landraces. We discuss the results with respect to the potential of dual-purpose sorghum hybrids for bio-economy in Germany. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Plant Diversity)
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Review
A Literature Synthesis of Actions to Tackle Illegal Parrot Trade
Diversity 2021, 13(5), 191; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/d13050191 - 29 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1029
Abstract
The order Psittaciformes is one of the most prevalent groups in the illegal wildlife trade. Efforts to understand this threat have focused on describing the elements of the trade itself: actors, extraction rates, and routes. However, the development of policy-oriented interventions also requires [...] Read more.
The order Psittaciformes is one of the most prevalent groups in the illegal wildlife trade. Efforts to understand this threat have focused on describing the elements of the trade itself: actors, extraction rates, and routes. However, the development of policy-oriented interventions also requires an understanding of how research aims and actions are distributed across the trade chain, regions, and species. We used an action-based approach to review documents published on illegal Psittaciformes trade at a global scale to analyze patterns in research aims and actions. Research increased exponentially in recent decades, recording 165 species from 46 genera, with an over representation of American and Australasian genera. Most of the research provided basic knowledge for the intermediary side of the trade chain. Aims such as the identification of network actors, zoonosis control, and aiding physical detection had numerous but scarcely cited documents (low growth rate), while behavior change had the highest growth rate. The Americas had the highest diversity of research aims, contributing with basic knowledge, implementation, and monitoring across the whole trade chain. Better understanding of the supply side dynamics in local markets, actor typology, and actor interactions are needed. Protecting areas, livelihood incentives, and legal substitutes are actions under-explored in parrots, while behavior change is emerging. Full article
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Article
Effect of Different Salinity Levels on Population Dynamics and Growth of the Cyclopoid Copepod Oithona nana
Diversity 2021, 13(5), 190; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/d13050190 - 29 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 462
Abstract
Copepods are one of the most abundant and diverse live food sources for mesopelagic and bathypelagic fishes and crustaceans. They could contribute to the overlap of the transition period from live feed to an artificial weaning diet in marine larvae production. However, the [...] Read more.
Copepods are one of the most abundant and diverse live food sources for mesopelagic and bathypelagic fishes and crustaceans. They could contribute to the overlap of the transition period from live feed to an artificial weaning diet in marine larvae production. However, the culture conditions still need optimization to provide sufficient production to cover the increasing demand for marine hatcheries. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of different salinity levels (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 ppt) on the population growth, growth rate, and population composition (males, females, copepodite, and nauplii ratio) of the marine copepod, Oithona nana. The experiment continued for 15 days, under laboratory-controlled conditions of temperature (27 ± 1 °C), pH (7.7 ± 0.15), and continuous gentle aeration in 30 L glass aquaria. The copepod culture aquaria were supplemented with a mixture of soybean and yeast (0.5 g 10−6 individual−1 24-h−1) as a feed source. The highest significant population growth and population growth rate of O. nana were achieved with a salinity level of 20 ppt. Regarding population composition, O. nana cultured at the salinity level of 20 ppt recorded the highest significant percentages of copepodite and nauplii. The results concluded that copepod, O. nana, is capable of withstanding abrupt changes in the salinity, but there are limits to their tolerance, with an optimal salinity level of 20 ppt. This salinity level achieved the highest population growth and the highest percentages of copepodite and nauplii of marine Copepoda, O. nana. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Larval Biology and Ecology of Marine Invertebrates)
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