For smartphone indoor localization, an INS/WiFi hybrid localization system is proposed in this paper. Acceleration and angular velocity are used to estimate step lengths and headings. The problem with INS is that positioning errors grow with time. Using radio signal strength as a fingerprint is a widely used technology. The main problem with fingerprint matching is mismatching due to noise. Taking into account the different shortcomings and advantages, inertial sensors and WiFi from smartphones are integrated into indoor positioning. For a hybrid localization system, pre-processing techniques are used to enhance the WiFi signal quality. An inertial navigation system limits the range of WiFi matching. A Multi-dimensional Dynamic Time Warping (MDTW) is proposed to calculate the distance between the measured signals and the fingerprint in the database. A MDTW-based weighted least squares (WLS) is proposed for fusing multiple fingerprint localization results to improve positioning accuracy and robustness. Using four modes (calling, dangling, handheld and pocket), we carried out walking experiments in a corridor, a study room and a library stack room. Experimental results show that average localization accuracy for the hybrid system is about 2.03 m.
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