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Review

Wearable Sensors for Monitoring of Cigarette Smoking in Free-Living: A Systematic Review

1
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487, USA
2
Department of Psychology, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 12246, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 October 2019 / Revised: 23 October 2019 / Accepted: 24 October 2019 / Published: 28 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications and Innovations on Sensor-Enabled Wearable Devices)
Globally, cigarette smoking is widespread among all ages, and smokers struggle to quit. The design of effective cessation interventions requires an accurate and objective assessment of smoking frequency and smoke exposure metrics. Recently, wearable devices have emerged as a means of assessing cigarette use. However, wearable technologies have inherent limitations, and their sensor responses are often influenced by wearers’ behavior, motion and environmental factors. This paper presents a systematic review of current and forthcoming wearable technologies, with a focus on sensing elements, body placement, detection accuracy, underlying algorithms and applications. Full-texts of 86 scientific articles were reviewed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines to address three research questions oriented to cigarette smoking, in order to: (1) Investigate the behavioral and physiological manifestations of cigarette smoking targeted by wearable sensors for smoking detection; (2) explore sensor modalities employed for detecting these manifestations; (3) evaluate underlying signal processing and pattern recognition methodologies and key performance metrics. The review identified five specific smoking manifestations targeted by sensors. The results suggested that no system reached 100% accuracy in the detection or evaluation of smoking-related features. Also, the testing of these sensors was mostly limited to laboratory settings. For a realistic evaluation of accuracy metrics, wearable devices require thorough testing under free-living conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: cigarette smoking; ECG; IMU; respiration; RIP; signal processing; smoke exposure; wearable sensor cigarette smoking; ECG; IMU; respiration; RIP; signal processing; smoke exposure; wearable sensor
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MDPI and ACS Style

Imtiaz, M.H.; Ramos-Garcia, R.I.; Wattal, S.; Tiffany, S.; Sazonov, E. Wearable Sensors for Monitoring of Cigarette Smoking in Free-Living: A Systematic Review. Sensors 2019, 19, 4678. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s19214678

AMA Style

Imtiaz MH, Ramos-Garcia RI, Wattal S, Tiffany S, Sazonov E. Wearable Sensors for Monitoring of Cigarette Smoking in Free-Living: A Systematic Review. Sensors. 2019; 19(21):4678. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s19214678

Chicago/Turabian Style

Imtiaz, Masudul H., Raul I. Ramos-Garcia, Shashank Wattal, Stephen Tiffany, and Edward Sazonov. 2019. "Wearable Sensors for Monitoring of Cigarette Smoking in Free-Living: A Systematic Review" Sensors 19, no. 21: 4678. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s19214678

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