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Review

Oxidative Stress and Cardiovascular Complications in Chronic Kidney Disease, the Impact of Anaemia

1
School of Life Sciences (Biomedical), University of Hull, Cottingham Rd, Hull HU6 7RX, UK
2
Hull York Medical School & Department of Renal Medicine, Hull and East Yorkshire NHS Hospital Trust, Hull HU3 2JZ, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pharmaceuticals 2018, 11(4), 103; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ph11040103
Received: 11 September 2018 / Revised: 30 September 2018 / Accepted: 1 October 2018 / Published: 11 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Iron as Therapeutic Targets in Human Diseases)
Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality as a result of risk factors such as left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), oxidative stress, and inflammation. The presence of anaemia in CKD further increases the risk of LVH and oxidative stress, thereby magnifying the deleterious consequence in uraemic cardiomyopathy (UCM), and aggravating progression to failure and increasing the risk of sudden cardiac death. This short review highlights the specific cardio-renal oxidative stress in CKD and provides an understanding of the pathophysiology and impact of uraemic toxins, inflammation, and anaemia on oxidative stress. View Full-Text
Keywords: oxidative stress; anaemia; cardiovascular disease; chronic kidney disease; IV iron therapy oxidative stress; anaemia; cardiovascular disease; chronic kidney disease; IV iron therapy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nuhu, F.; Bhandari, S. Oxidative Stress and Cardiovascular Complications in Chronic Kidney Disease, the Impact of Anaemia. Pharmaceuticals 2018, 11, 103. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ph11040103

AMA Style

Nuhu F, Bhandari S. Oxidative Stress and Cardiovascular Complications in Chronic Kidney Disease, the Impact of Anaemia. Pharmaceuticals. 2018; 11(4):103. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ph11040103

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nuhu, Faisal, and Sunil Bhandari. 2018. "Oxidative Stress and Cardiovascular Complications in Chronic Kidney Disease, the Impact of Anaemia" Pharmaceuticals 11, no. 4: 103. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ph11040103

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