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The Role of Counter-Ions in Peptides—An Overview

Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Gdańsk, 80-210 Gdańsk, Poland
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Pharmaceuticals 2020, 13(12), 442; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ph13120442
Received: 2 November 2020 / Revised: 29 November 2020 / Accepted: 1 December 2020 / Published: 3 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Biopharmaceuticals)
Peptides and proteins constitute a large group of molecules that play multiple functions in living organisms. In conjunction with their important role in biological processes and advances in chemical approaches of synthesis, the interest in peptide-based drugs is still growing. As the side chains of amino acids can be basic, acidic, or neutral, the peptide drugs often occur in the form of salts with different counter-ions. This review focuses on the role of counter-ions in peptides. To date, over 60 peptide-based drugs have been approved by the FDA. Based on their area of application, biological activity, and results of preliminary tests they are characterized by different counter-ions. Moreover, the impact of counter-ions on structure, physicochemical properties, and drug formulation is analyzed. Additionally, the application of salts as mobile phase additives in chromatographic analyses and analytical techniques is highlighted. View Full-Text
Keywords: peptides; counter-ions; drug formulation; analytical techniques; physicochemical; counter-ion exchange; peptide drugs; peptide synthesis peptides; counter-ions; drug formulation; analytical techniques; physicochemical; counter-ion exchange; peptide drugs; peptide synthesis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sikora, K.; Jaśkiewicz, M.; Neubauer, D.; Migoń, D.; Kamysz, W. The Role of Counter-Ions in Peptides—An Overview. Pharmaceuticals 2020, 13, 442. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ph13120442

AMA Style

Sikora K, Jaśkiewicz M, Neubauer D, Migoń D, Kamysz W. The Role of Counter-Ions in Peptides—An Overview. Pharmaceuticals. 2020; 13(12):442. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ph13120442

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sikora, Karol, Maciej Jaśkiewicz, Damian Neubauer, Dorian Migoń, and Wojciech Kamysz. 2020. "The Role of Counter-Ions in Peptides—An Overview" Pharmaceuticals 13, no. 12: 442. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ph13120442

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