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Autophagy as a Potential Therapy for Malignant Glioma

Departamento de Neuroinmunología, Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía, Ciudad de México 14269, Mexico
Laboratorio de Oncología Experimental, CONACYT-Instituto Nacional de Pediatría, Ciudad de México 04530, Mexico
Departamento de Patología, Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía, Ciudad de México 14269, Mexico
Laboratorio de Inmunología, División de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigación, Facultad de Odontología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de México 04510, Mexico
Clínica de Neurooncología, Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía, Ciudad de México 14269, Mexico
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pharmaceuticals 2020, 13(7), 156;
Received: 5 June 2020 / Revised: 1 July 2020 / Accepted: 14 July 2020 / Published: 19 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Translational Biomarkers and Targeted Therapies)
Glioma is the most frequent and aggressive type of brain neoplasm, being anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) and glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), its most malignant forms. The survival rate in patients with these neoplasms is 15 months after diagnosis, despite a diversity of treatments, including surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy. The resistance of GBM to various therapies is due to a highly mutated genome; these genetic changes induce a de-regulation of several signaling pathways and result in higher cell proliferation rates, angiogenesis, invasion, and a marked resistance to apoptosis; this latter trait is a hallmark of highly invasive tumor cells, such as glioma cells. Due to a defective apoptosis in gliomas, induced autophagic death can be an alternative to remove tumor cells. Paradoxically, however, autophagy in cancer can promote either a cell death or survival. Modulating the autophagic pathway as a death mechanism for cancer cells has prompted the use of both inhibitors and autophagy inducers. The autophagic process, either as a cancer suppressing or inducing mechanism in high-grade gliomas is discussed in this review, along with therapeutic approaches to inhibit or induce autophagy in pre-clinical and clinical studies, aiming to increase the efficiency of conventional treatments to remove glioma neoplastic cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: autophagy; glioma; chemotherapy autophagy; glioma; chemotherapy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Escamilla-Ramírez, A.; Castillo-Rodríguez, R.A.; Zavala-Vega, S.; Jimenez-Farfan, D.; Anaya-Rubio, I.; Briseño, E.; Palencia, G.; Guevara, P.; Cruz-Salgado, A.; Sotelo, J.; Trejo-Solís, C. Autophagy as a Potential Therapy for Malignant Glioma. Pharmaceuticals 2020, 13, 156.

AMA Style

Escamilla-Ramírez A, Castillo-Rodríguez RA, Zavala-Vega S, Jimenez-Farfan D, Anaya-Rubio I, Briseño E, Palencia G, Guevara P, Cruz-Salgado A, Sotelo J, Trejo-Solís C. Autophagy as a Potential Therapy for Malignant Glioma. Pharmaceuticals. 2020; 13(7):156.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Escamilla-Ramírez, Angel, Rosa A. Castillo-Rodríguez, Sergio Zavala-Vega, Dolores Jimenez-Farfan, Isabel Anaya-Rubio, Eduardo Briseño, Guadalupe Palencia, Patricia Guevara, Arturo Cruz-Salgado, Julio Sotelo, and Cristina Trejo-Solís. 2020. "Autophagy as a Potential Therapy for Malignant Glioma" Pharmaceuticals 13, no. 7: 156.

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