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Antibacterials in Aquatic Environment and Their Toxicity to Fish

1
Department of Zoology and Animal Welfare, Faculty of Animal Science, University of Agriculture in Krakow, Mickiewicza 24/28, 30-059 Krakow, Poland
2
Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Exact and Natural Sciences, Siedlce University of Natural Sciences and Humanities, Prusa 14, 08-110 Siedlce, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pharmaceuticals 2020, 13(8), 189; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ph13080189
Received: 12 July 2020 / Revised: 5 August 2020 / Accepted: 7 August 2020 / Published: 9 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Pharmacology)
Antibacterial agents are commonly present in aquatic environment at low concentrations. Terrestrial animal farms, human medicine and aquaculture are main sources of water contamination with antibacterials. Antibiotics were proved to be directly toxic to fish causing oxidative stress, general stress response, histopathological lesions, hematological, metabolic, and reproductive disorders, as well as immunosuppressive and genotoxic effects. Environmentally realistic low concentrations of antibiotics also disturb aquatic bacterial communities causing alterations in fish symbiotic microbiota and induce emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria by exerting selective pressure on spread of antibiotic-resistance genes. View Full-Text
Keywords: antibiotics; chemotherapeutics; toxic effects; oxidative stress; hematological changes; histopathology; antibiotic resistance antibiotics; chemotherapeutics; toxic effects; oxidative stress; hematological changes; histopathology; antibiotic resistance
MDPI and ACS Style

Bojarski, B.; Kot, B.; Witeska, M. Antibacterials in Aquatic Environment and Their Toxicity to Fish. Pharmaceuticals 2020, 13, 189. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ph13080189

AMA Style

Bojarski B, Kot B, Witeska M. Antibacterials in Aquatic Environment and Their Toxicity to Fish. Pharmaceuticals. 2020; 13(8):189. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ph13080189

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bojarski, Bartosz, Barbara Kot, and Małgorzata Witeska. 2020. "Antibacterials in Aquatic Environment and Their Toxicity to Fish" Pharmaceuticals 13, no. 8: 189. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ph13080189

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