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Article

Comparison of Five Oral Cannabidiol Preparations in Adult Humans: Pharmacokinetics, Body Composition, and Heart Rate Variability

1
Department of Health and Exercise Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1582, USA
2
Caliper Foods, Commerce City, CO 80022-3970, USA
3
Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1680, USA
4
Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1571, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pharmaceuticals 2021, 14(1), 35; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ph14010035
Received: 11 December 2020 / Revised: 28 December 2020 / Accepted: 4 January 2021 / Published: 6 January 2021
Data supporting the physiological effects of cannabidiol (CBD) ingestion in humans are conflicting. Differences between CBD preparations and bioavailability may contribute to these discrepancies. Further, an influence of body composition on CBD bioavailability is feasible, but currently undocumented. The aims of this study were to: (1) compare the pharmacokinetics of five oral CBD preparations over 4 h; (2) examine the relationship between body composition and CBD pharmacokinetics; and, (3) explore the influence of CBD on heart rate variability. In total, five preparations of CBD, standardized to 30 mg, were orally administered to 15 healthy men and women (21–62 years) in a randomized, crossover design. Prior to and 60 min following CBD ingestion, heart rate variability was determined. Body composition was assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Peak circulating CBD concentration, time to peak concentration, and area under the curve was superior in a preparation comprising 5% CBD concentration liquid. Fat free mass was a significant predictor (R2 = 0.365, p = 0.017) of time to peak concentration for this preparation. Several heart rate variability parameters, including peak frequency of the high frequency band, were favorably, but modestly modified following CBD ingestion. These data confirm an influence of CBD preparation and body composition on CBD bioavailability, and suggest that acute CBD ingestion may have a modest influence on autonomic regulation of heart rate. View Full-Text
Keywords: bioavailability; fat free mass; autonomic bioavailability; fat free mass; autonomic
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MDPI and ACS Style

Williams, N.N.B.; Ewell, T.R.; Abbotts, K.S.S.; Harms, K.J.; Woelfel, K.A.; Dooley, G.P.; Weir, T.L.; Bell, C. Comparison of Five Oral Cannabidiol Preparations in Adult Humans: Pharmacokinetics, Body Composition, and Heart Rate Variability. Pharmaceuticals 2021, 14, 35. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ph14010035

AMA Style

Williams NNB, Ewell TR, Abbotts KSS, Harms KJ, Woelfel KA, Dooley GP, Weir TL, Bell C. Comparison of Five Oral Cannabidiol Preparations in Adult Humans: Pharmacokinetics, Body Composition, and Heart Rate Variability. Pharmaceuticals. 2021; 14(1):35. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ph14010035

Chicago/Turabian Style

Williams, Natasha N.B., Taylor R. Ewell, Kieran S.S. Abbotts, Kole J. Harms, Keith A. Woelfel, Gregory P. Dooley, Tiffany L. Weir, and Christopher Bell. 2021. "Comparison of Five Oral Cannabidiol Preparations in Adult Humans: Pharmacokinetics, Body Composition, and Heart Rate Variability" Pharmaceuticals 14, no. 1: 35. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ph14010035

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