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Article

Optimization of Novel Naproxen-Loaded Chitosan/Carrageenan Nanocarrier-Based Gel for Topical Delivery: Ex Vivo, Histopathological, and In Vivo Evaluation

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Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100, Pakistan
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Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Ajman University, Ajman P.O. Box 346, United Arab Emirates
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Medical and Bio-Allied Health Sciences Research Centre, Ajman University, Ajman P.O. Box 346, United Arab Emirates
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Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Ajman University, Ajman P.O. Box 346, United Arab Emirates
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Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Al Ain University, Al Ain P.O. Box 64141, United Arab Emirates
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Department of Pharmacy, COMSATS University Islamabad, Lahore Campus, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: María Ángeles Peña Fernández and Serge Mordon
Pharmaceuticals 2021, 14(6), 557; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ph14060557
Received: 11 May 2021 / Revised: 23 May 2021 / Accepted: 27 May 2021 / Published: 11 June 2021
Naproxen (NAP) is commonly used for pain, inflammation, and stiffness associated with arthritis. However, systemic administration is linked with several gastrointestinal tract (GIT) side effects. The present work aims to prepare and evaluate NAP nanoparticulate shells of chitosan (CS) and carrageenan (CRG) loaded into a Carbopol 940 (Ca-940) gel system with unique features of sustained drug delivery as well as improved permeation through a topical route. Moreover, this study aims to evaluate its ex vivo, histopathological, and in vivo anti-inflammatory activity in albino Wistar rats. The percentage of ex vivo drug permeation patterns in the optimized formulation (No) was higher (88.66%) than the control gel (36.195%). Oral toxicity studies of developed nanoparticles in albino rabbits showed that the NAP-loaded CS/CRG are non-toxic and, upon histopathological evaluation, no sign of incompatibility was observed compared to the control group. A In Vivo study showed that the optimized gel formulation (No) was more effective than the control gel (Nc) in treating arthritis-associated inflammation. The sustained permeation and the absence of skin irritation make this novel NAP nanoparticle-loaded gel based on CS/CRG a suitable drug delivery system for topical application and has the potential for improved patient compliance and reduced GIT-related side effects in arthritis. View Full-Text
Keywords: chitosan; carrageenan; anti-inflammatory; naproxen; polyelectrolyte complexation; nanocarriers; Ca-940 gel; toxicity study chitosan; carrageenan; anti-inflammatory; naproxen; polyelectrolyte complexation; nanocarriers; Ca-940 gel; toxicity study
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MDPI and ACS Style

Noreen, S.; Pervaiz, F.; Ashames, A.; Buabeid, M.; Fahelelbom, K.; Shoukat, H.; Maqbool, I.; Murtaza, G. Optimization of Novel Naproxen-Loaded Chitosan/Carrageenan Nanocarrier-Based Gel for Topical Delivery: Ex Vivo, Histopathological, and In Vivo Evaluation. Pharmaceuticals 2021, 14, 557. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ph14060557

AMA Style

Noreen S, Pervaiz F, Ashames A, Buabeid M, Fahelelbom K, Shoukat H, Maqbool I, Murtaza G. Optimization of Novel Naproxen-Loaded Chitosan/Carrageenan Nanocarrier-Based Gel for Topical Delivery: Ex Vivo, Histopathological, and In Vivo Evaluation. Pharmaceuticals. 2021; 14(6):557. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ph14060557

Chicago/Turabian Style

Noreen, Sobia, Fahad Pervaiz, Akram Ashames, Manal Buabeid, Khairi Fahelelbom, Hina Shoukat, Irsah Maqbool, and Ghulam Murtaza. 2021. "Optimization of Novel Naproxen-Loaded Chitosan/Carrageenan Nanocarrier-Based Gel for Topical Delivery: Ex Vivo, Histopathological, and In Vivo Evaluation" Pharmaceuticals 14, no. 6: 557. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ph14060557

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