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Article

Chronic Red Bull Consumption during Adolescence: Effect on Mesocortical and Mesolimbic Dopamine Transmission and Cardiovascular System in Adult Rats

1
Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria SP 8, Km 0.700, 09042 Monserrato, Italy
2
Neuroscience Institute, National Research Council of Italy, Section of Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria SP 8, Km 0.700, 09042 Monserrato, Italy
3
Department of Cardiology, University College of Dublin, Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, D07 R2WY Dublin, Ireland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Lusine Danielyan and Huu Phuc Nguyen
Pharmaceuticals 2021, 14(7), 609; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ph14070609
Received: 21 May 2021 / Revised: 19 June 2021 / Accepted: 21 June 2021 / Published: 24 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Drugs and Biologics For Treatment of Central Nervous Dysfunction)
Energy drinks are very popular nonalcoholic beverages among adolescents and young adults for their stimulant effects. Our study aimed to investigate the effect of repeated intraoral Red Bull (RB) infusion on dopamine transmission in the nucleus accumbens shell and core and in the medial prefrontal cortex and on cardiac contractility in adult rats exposed to chronic RB consumption. Rats were subjected to 4 weeks of RB voluntary consumption from adolescence to adulthood. Monitoring of in vivo dopamine was carried out by brain microdialysis. In vitro cardiac contractility was studied on biomechanical properties of isolated left-ventricular papillary muscle. The main finding of the study was that, in treated animals, RB increased shell dopamine via a nonadaptive mechanism, a pattern similar to that of drugs of abuse. No changes in isometric and isotonic mechanical parameters were associated with chronic RB consumption. However, a prolonged time to peak tension and half-time of relaxation and a slower peak rate of tension fall were observed in RB-treated rats. It is likely that RB treatment affects left-ventricular papillary muscle contraction. The neurochemical results here obtained can explain the addictive properties of RB, while the cardiovascular investigation findings suggest a hidden papillary contractility impairment. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy drinks; dopamine; nucleus accumbens; prefrontal cortex; cardiovascular hemodynamic indices; cardiac contractility energy drinks; dopamine; nucleus accumbens; prefrontal cortex; cardiovascular hemodynamic indices; cardiac contractility
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vargiu, R.; Broccia, F.; Lobina, C.; Lecca, D.; Capra, A.; Bassareo, P.P.; Bassareo, V. Chronic Red Bull Consumption during Adolescence: Effect on Mesocortical and Mesolimbic Dopamine Transmission and Cardiovascular System in Adult Rats. Pharmaceuticals 2021, 14, 609. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ph14070609

AMA Style

Vargiu R, Broccia F, Lobina C, Lecca D, Capra A, Bassareo PP, Bassareo V. Chronic Red Bull Consumption during Adolescence: Effect on Mesocortical and Mesolimbic Dopamine Transmission and Cardiovascular System in Adult Rats. Pharmaceuticals. 2021; 14(7):609. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ph14070609

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vargiu, Romina, Francesca Broccia, Carla Lobina, Daniele Lecca, Alessandro Capra, Pier P. Bassareo, and Valentina Bassareo. 2021. "Chronic Red Bull Consumption during Adolescence: Effect on Mesocortical and Mesolimbic Dopamine Transmission and Cardiovascular System in Adult Rats" Pharmaceuticals 14, no. 7: 609. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ph14070609

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