The anti-microbial peptide (AMP) pleurocidin is found in winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus
), an Atlantic flounder species. There is promising evidence for clinical, aquaculture, and veterinary applications of pleurocidin. This review provides an overview of the current literature available on pleurocidin to guide future research directions. By fully elucidating pleurocidin’s mechanism of action and developing novel treatments against pathogenic microbes, populations of flatfish and humans can be protected. This review consulted publications from PubMed and Environment Complete with search terms such as “pleurocidin”, “winter flounder”, and “antimicrobial”. The fish immune system includes AMPs as a component of the innate immune system. Pleurocidin, one of these AMPs, has been found to be effective against various Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. More investigations are required to determine pleurocidin’s suitability as a treatment against antibiotic-resistant pathogens. There is promising evidence for pleurocidin as a novel anti-cancer therapy. The peptide has been found to display potent anti-cancer effects against human cancer cells. Research efforts focused on pleurocidin may result in novel treatment strategies against antibiotic-resistant bacteria and cancer. More research is required to determine if the peptide is a suitable candidate to be developed into a novel anti-microbial treatment. Some of the microbes susceptible to the peptide are also pathogens of fish, suggesting its suitability as a therapeutic treatment for fish species.
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