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Curr. Issues Mol. Biol., Volume 42, Issue 1 (March 2021) – 19 articles

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Review
Host Innate Immune Response and Viral Immune Evasion during Alphaherpesvirus Infection
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2021, 42(1), 635-686; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.21775/cimb.042.635 - 28 Feb 2021
Viewed by 242
Abstract
Both the development of the mammalian innate immune system and the antagonistic strategies acquired by alphaherpesviruses to dismantle it have been shaped by co-evolving virus-host interactions over millions of years. Here, we review mechanisms employed by mammalian cells to detect pathogen molecules, such [...] Read more.
Both the development of the mammalian innate immune system and the antagonistic strategies acquired by alphaherpesviruses to dismantle it have been shaped by co-evolving virus-host interactions over millions of years. Here, we review mechanisms employed by mammalian cells to detect pathogen molecules, such as viral glycoproteins and nucleic acids, and induce innate immune signaling upon infection with alphaherpesviruses. We further explore strategies acquired by these viruses to bypass immune detection and activation, thereby supporting virus replication and spread. Finally, we discuss the contributions of advanced “omics” and microscopy methods to these discoveries in immune signaling and highlight emerging technologies that can help to further our understanding of the dynamic interplay between host innate immune responses and virus immune evasion. Full article
Review
New Approaches to Vaccinology Made Possible by Advances in Next Generation Sequencing, Bioinformatics and Protein Modeling
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2021, 42(1), 605-634; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.21775/cimb.042.605 - 25 Feb 2021
Viewed by 230
Abstract
Vaccines can be powerful tools, but for some diseases, safe and effective vaccines have been elusive. New developments in nucleic acid sequencing, bioinformatics, and protein modeling are facilitating the discovery of previously unknown antigens through reverse vaccinology approaches. Sequencing the complementarity- determining region [...] Read more.
Vaccines can be powerful tools, but for some diseases, safe and effective vaccines have been elusive. New developments in nucleic acid sequencing, bioinformatics, and protein modeling are facilitating the discovery of previously unknown antigens through reverse vaccinology approaches. Sequencing the complementarity- determining region of antibodies and T cell receptors allows detailed assessment of the immune repertoire and identification of paratopes shared by many individuals, supporting the selection of antigens that may be broadly protective. Systems vaccinology approaches to asses the global host response to vaccination by evaluation of differentially expressed genes in blood, cellular or tissue transcriptomes can reveal previously unknown pathways and interactions related to protective immunity. While it is important to remember that discoveries made through reverse vaccinology and systems vaccinology must still be confirmed with traditional challenge models and clinical trials, these approaches can provide new perspectives that may help solve longstanding problems in veterinary vaccinology. Full article
Review
Tegument Assembly, Secondary Envelopment and Exocytosis
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2021, 42(1), 551-604; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.21775/cimb.042.551 - 24 Feb 2021
Viewed by 168
Abstract
Alphaherpesvirus tegument assembly, secondary envelopment, and exocytosis processes are understood in broad strokes, but many of the individual steps in this pathway, and their molecular and cell biological details, remain unclear. Viral tegument and membrane proteins form an extensive and robust protein interaction [...] Read more.
Alphaherpesvirus tegument assembly, secondary envelopment, and exocytosis processes are understood in broad strokes, but many of the individual steps in this pathway, and their molecular and cell biological details, remain unclear. Viral tegument and membrane proteins form an extensive and robust protein interaction network, such that essentially any structural protein can be deleted, yet particles are still assembled, enveloped, and released from infected cells. We conceptually divide the tegument proteins into three groups: conserved inner and outer teguments that participate in nucleocapsid and membrane contacts, respectively; and 'middle' tegument proteins, consisting of some of the most abundant tegument proteins that serve as central hubs in the protein interaction network, yet which are unique to the alphaherpesviruses. We then discuss secondary envelopment, reviewing the tegument-membrane contacts and cellular factors that drive this process. We place this viral process in the context of cell biological processes, including the endocytic pathway, ESCRT machinery, autophagy, secretory pathway, intracellular transport, and exocytosis mechanisms. Finally, we speculate about potential relationships between cellular defenses against oligomerizing or aggregating membrane proteins and the envelopment and egress of viruses. Full article
Review
Pathogenesis of Relapsing Fever
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2021, 42(1), 519-550; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.21775/cimb.042.519 - 29 Dec 2020
Viewed by 179
Abstract
Relapsing fever (RF) is caused by several species of Borrelia; all, except two species, are transmitted to humans by soft (argasid) ticks. The species B. recurrentis is transmitted from one human to another by the body louse, while B. miyamotoi is vectored [...] Read more.
Relapsing fever (RF) is caused by several species of Borrelia; all, except two species, are transmitted to humans by soft (argasid) ticks. The species B. recurrentis is transmitted from one human to another by the body louse, while B. miyamotoi is vectored by hard-bodied ixodid tick species. RF Borrelia have several pathogenic features that facilitate invasion and dissemination in the infected host. In this article we discuss the dynamics of vector acquisition and subsequent transmission of RF Borrelia to their vertebrate hosts. We also review taxonomic challenges for RF Borrelia as new species have been isolated throughout the globe. Moreover, aspects of pathogenesis including symptomology, neurotropism, erythrocyte and platelet adhesion are discussed. We expound on RF Borrelia evasion strategies for innate and adaptive immunity, focusing on the most fundamental pathogenetic attributes, multiphasic antigenic variation. Lastly, we review new and emerging species of RF Borrelia and discuss future directions for this global disease. Full article
Review
Lyme Disease Pathogenesis
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2021, 42(1), 473-518; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.21775/cimb.042.473 - 23 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 163
Abstract
Lyme disease Borrelia are obligately parasitic, tick- transmitted, invasive, persistent bacterial pathogens that cause disease in humans and non-reservoir vertebrates primarily through the induction of inflammation. During transmission from the infected tick, the bacteria undergo significant changes in gene expression, resulting in adaptation [...] Read more.
Lyme disease Borrelia are obligately parasitic, tick- transmitted, invasive, persistent bacterial pathogens that cause disease in humans and non-reservoir vertebrates primarily through the induction of inflammation. During transmission from the infected tick, the bacteria undergo significant changes in gene expression, resulting in adaptation to the mammalian environment. The organisms multiply and spread locally and induce inflammatory responses that, in humans, result in clinical signs and symptoms. Borrelia virulence involves a multiplicity of mechanisms for dissemination and colonization of multiple tissues and evasion of host immune responses. Most of the tissue damage, which is seen in non-reservoir hosts, appears to result from host inflammatory reactions, despite the low numbers of bacteria in affected sites. This host response to the Lyme disease Borrelia can cause neurologic, cardiovascular, arthritic, and dermatologic manifestations during the disseminated and persistent stages of infection. The mechanisms by which a paucity of organisms (in comparison to many other infectious diseases) can cause varied and in some cases profound inflammation and symptoms remains mysterious but are the subjects of diverse ongoing investigations. In this review, we provide an overview of virulence mechanisms and determinants for which roles have been demonstrated in vivo, primarily in mouse models of infection. Full article
Review
A Molecular Image-Based Novel Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Approach, Deepsnap-Deep Learning and Machine Learning
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2021, 42(1), 455-472; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.21775/cimb.042.455 - 19 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 235
Abstract
The quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) approach has been used in numerous chemical compounds as in silico computational assessment for a long time. Further, owing to the high-performance modeling of QSAR, machine learning methods have been developed and upgraded. Particularly, the three- dimensional structure [...] Read more.
The quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) approach has been used in numerous chemical compounds as in silico computational assessment for a long time. Further, owing to the high-performance modeling of QSAR, machine learning methods have been developed and upgraded. Particularly, the three- dimensional structure of chemical compounds has been gaining increasing attention owing to the representation of a large amount of information. However, only many of feature extraction is impossible to build models with the high-ability of the prediction. Thus, suitable extraction and effective selection of features are essential for models with excellent performance. Recently, the deep learning method has been employed to construct prediction models with very high performance using big data, especially, in the field of classification. Therefore, in this study, we developed a molecular image-based novel QSAR approach, called DeepSnap-Deep learning approach for designing high-performance models. In addition, this DeepSnap-Deep learning approach outperformed the conventional machine learnings when they are compared. Herein, we discuss the advantage and disadvantages of the machine learnings as well as the availability of the DeepSnap-Deep learning approach. Full article
Review
Multipartite Genome of Lyme Disease Borrelia: Structure, Variation and Prophages
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2021, 42(1), 409-454; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.21775/cimb.042.409 - 17 Dec 2020
Viewed by 224
Abstract
All members of the Borrelia genus that have been examined harbour a linear chromosome that is about 900 kbp in length, as well as a plethora of both linear and circular plasmids in the 5–220 kbp size range. Genome sequences for 27 Lyme [...] Read more.
All members of the Borrelia genus that have been examined harbour a linear chromosome that is about 900 kbp in length, as well as a plethora of both linear and circular plasmids in the 5–220 kbp size range. Genome sequences for 27 Lyme disease Borrelia isolates have been determined since the elucidation of the B. burgdorferi B31 genome sequence in 1997. The chromosomes, which carry the vast majority of the housekeeping genes, appear to be very constant in gene content and organization across all Lyme disease Borrelia species. The content of the plasmids, which carry most of the genes that encode the differentially expressed surface proteins that interact with the spirochete's arthropod and vertebrate hosts, is much more variable. Lyme disease Borrelia isolates carry between 7–21 different plasmids, ranging in size from 5–84 kbp. All strains analyzed to date harbor three plasmids, cp26, lp54 and lp17. The plasmids are unusual, as compared to most bacterial plasmids, in that they contain many paralogous sequences, a large number of pseudogenes, and, in some cases, essential genes. In addition, a number of the plasmids have features indicating that they are prophages. Numerous methods have been developed for Lyme disease Borrelia strain typing. These have proven valuable for clinical and epidemiological studies, as well as phylogenomic and population genetic analyses. Increasingly, these approaches have been displaced by whole genome sequencing techniques. Some correlations between genome content and pathogenicity have been deduced, and comparative whole genome analyses promise future progress in this arena. Full article
Review
Live Imaging
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2021, 42(1), 385-408; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.21775/cimb.042.385 - 12 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 188
Abstract
Being able to vizualize a pathogen at a site of interaction with a host is an aesthetically appealing idea and the resulting images can be both informative as well as enjoyable to view. Moreover, the approaches used to derive these images can be [...] Read more.
Being able to vizualize a pathogen at a site of interaction with a host is an aesthetically appealing idea and the resulting images can be both informative as well as enjoyable to view. Moreover, the approaches used to derive these images can be powerful in terms of offering data unobtainable by other methods. In this article, we review three primary modalities for live imaging Borrelia spirochetes: whole animal imaging, intravital microscopy and live cell imaging. Each method has strengths and weaknesses, which we review, as well as specific purposes for which they are optimally utilized. Live imaging borriliae is a relatively recent development and there was a need of a review to cover the area. Here, in addition to the methods themselves, we also review areas of spirochete biology that have been significantly impacted by live imaging and present a collection of images associated with the forward motion in the field driven by imaging studies. Full article
Review
Lyme Disease in Humans
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2021, 42(1), 333-384; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.21775/cimb.042.333 - 11 Dec 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 252
Abstract
Lyme disease (Lyme borreliosis) is a tick-borne, zoonosis of adults and children caused by genospecies of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. The ailment, widespread throughout the Northern Hemisphere, continues to increase globally due to multiple environmental factors, coupled with increased incursion of [...] Read more.
Lyme disease (Lyme borreliosis) is a tick-borne, zoonosis of adults and children caused by genospecies of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. The ailment, widespread throughout the Northern Hemisphere, continues to increase globally due to multiple environmental factors, coupled with increased incursion of humans into habitats that harbor the spirochete. B. burgdorferi sensu lato is transmitted by ticks from the Ixodes ricinus complex. In North America, B. burgdorferi causes nearly all infections; in Europe, B. afzelii and B. garinii are most associated with human disease. The spirochete's unusual fragmented genome encodes a plethora of differentially expressed outer surface lipoproteins that play a seminal role in the bacterium's ability to sustain itself within its enzootic cycle and cause disease when transmitted to its incidental human host. Tissue damage and symptomatology (i.e., clinical manifestations) result from the inflammatory response elicited by the bacterium and its constituents. The deposition of spirochetes into human dermal tissue generates a local inflammatory response that manifests as erythema migrans (EM), the hallmark skin lesion. If treated appropriately and early, the prognosis is excellent. However, in untreated patients, the disease may present with a wide range of clinical manifestations, most commonly involving the central nervous system, joints, or heart. A small percentage (~10%) of patients may go on to develop a poorly defined fibromyalgia-like illness, post-treatment Lyme disease (PTLD) unresponsive to prolonged antimicrobial therapy. Below we integrate current knowledge regarding the ecologic, epidemiologic, microbiologic, and immunologic facets of Lyme disease into a conceptual framework that sheds light on the disorder that healthcare providers encounter. Full article
Review
Genetic Manipulation of Borrelia
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2021, 42(1), 307-332; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.21775/cimb.042.307 - 10 Dec 2020
Viewed by 158
Abstract
Genetic studies in Borrelia require special consideration of the highly segmented genome, complex growth requirements and evolutionary distance of spirochetes from other genetically tractable bacteria. Despite these challenges, a robust molecular genetic toolbox has been constructed to investigate the biology and pathogenic potential [...] Read more.
Genetic studies in Borrelia require special consideration of the highly segmented genome, complex growth requirements and evolutionary distance of spirochetes from other genetically tractable bacteria. Despite these challenges, a robust molecular genetic toolbox has been constructed to investigate the biology and pathogenic potential of these important human pathogens. In this review we summarize the tools and techniques that are currently available for the genetic manipulation of Borrelia, including the relapsing fever spirochetes, viewing them in the context of their utility and shortcomings. Our primary objective is to help researchers discern what is feasible and what is not practical when thinking about potential genetic experiments in Borrelia. We have summarized published methods and highlighted their critical elements, but we are not providing detailed protocols. Although many advances have been made since B. burgdorferi was first transformed over 25 years ago, some standard genetic tools remain elusive for Borrelia. We mention these limitations and why they persist, if known. We hope to encourage investigators to explore what might be possible, in addition to optimizing what currently can be achieved, through genetic manipulation of Borrelia. Full article
Review
Perpetuation of Borreliae
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2021, 42(1), 267-306; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.21775/cimb.042.267 - 10 Dec 2020
Viewed by 141
Abstract
With one exception (epidemic relapsing fever), borreliae are obligately maintained in nature by ticks. Although some Borrelia spp. may be vertically transmitted to subsequent generations of ticks, most require amplification by a vertebrate host because inheritance is not stable. Enzootic cycles of borreliae [...] Read more.
With one exception (epidemic relapsing fever), borreliae are obligately maintained in nature by ticks. Although some Borrelia spp. may be vertically transmitted to subsequent generations of ticks, most require amplification by a vertebrate host because inheritance is not stable. Enzootic cycles of borreliae have been found globally; those receiving the most attention from researchers are those whose vectors have some degree of anthropophily and, thus, cause zoonoses such as Lyme disease or relapsing fever. To some extent, our views on the synecology of the borreliae has been dominated by an applied focus, viz., analyses that seek to understand the elements of human risk for borreliosis. But, the elements of borrelial perpetuation do not necessarily bear upon risk, nor do our concepts of risk provide the best structure for analyzing perpetuation. We identify the major global themes for the perpetuation of borreliae, and summarize local variations on those themes, focusing on key literature to outline the factors that serve as the basis for the distribution and abundance of borreliae. Full article
Review
Gene Regulation and Transcriptomics
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2021, 42(1), 223-266; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.21775/cimb.042.223 - 10 Dec 2020
Viewed by 271
Abstract
Borrelia (Borreliella) burgdorferi, along with closely related species, is the etiologic agent of Lyme disease. The spirochete subsists in an enzootic cycle that encompasses acquisition from a vertebrate host to a tick vector and transmission from a tick vector to [...] Read more.
Borrelia (Borreliella) burgdorferi, along with closely related species, is the etiologic agent of Lyme disease. The spirochete subsists in an enzootic cycle that encompasses acquisition from a vertebrate host to a tick vector and transmission from a tick vector to a vertebrate host. To adapt to its environment and persist in each phase of its enzootic cycle, B. burgdorferi wields three systems to regulate the expression of genes: the RpoN-RpoS alternative sigma (σ) factor cascade, the Hk1/Rrp1 two-component system and its product c-di-GMP, and the stringent response mediated by RelBbu and DksA. These regulatory systems respond to enzootic phase-specific signals and are controlled or fine- tuned by transcription factors, including BosR and BadR, as well as small RNAs, including DsrABb and Bb6S RNA. In addition, several other DNA-binding and RNA-binding proteins have been identified, although their functions have not all been defined. Global changes in gene expression revealed by high-throughput transcriptomic studies have elucidated various regulons, albeit technical obstacles have mostly limited this experimental approach to cultivated spirochetes. Regardless, we know that the spirochete, which carries a relatively small genome, regulates the expression of a considerable number of genes required for the transitions between the tick vector and the vertebrate host as well as the adaptation to each. Full article
Review
Human and Veterinary Vaccines for Lyme Disease
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2021, 42(1), 191-222; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.21775/cimb.042.191 - 08 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 190
Abstract
Lyme disease (LD) is an emerging zoonotic infection that is increasing in incidence in North America, Europe, and Asia. With the development of safe and efficacious vaccines, LD can potentially be prevented. Vaccination offers a cost-effective and safe approach for decreasing the risk [...] Read more.
Lyme disease (LD) is an emerging zoonotic infection that is increasing in incidence in North America, Europe, and Asia. With the development of safe and efficacious vaccines, LD can potentially be prevented. Vaccination offers a cost-effective and safe approach for decreasing the risk of infection. While LD vaccines have been widely used in veterinary medicine, they are not available as a preventive tool for humans. Central to the development of effective vaccines is an understanding of the enzootic cycle of LD, differential gene expression of Borrelia burgdorferi in response to environmental variables, and the genetic and antigenic diversity of the unique bacteria that cause this debilitating disease. Here we review these areas as they pertain to past and present efforts to develop human, veterinary, and reservoir targeting LD vaccines. In addition, we offer a brief overview of additional preventative measures that should employed in conjunction with vaccination. Full article
Review
Immune Response to Borrelia: Lessons from Lyme Disease Spirochetes
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2021, 42(1), 145-190; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.21775/cimb.042.145 - 08 Dec 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 203
Abstract
The mammalian host responds to infection with Borrelia spirochetes through a highly orchestrated immune defense involving innate and adaptive effector functions aimed toward limiting pathogen burdens, minimizing tissue injury, and preventing subsequent reinfection. The evolutionary adaptation of Borrelia spirochetes to their reservoir mammalian [...] Read more.
The mammalian host responds to infection with Borrelia spirochetes through a highly orchestrated immune defense involving innate and adaptive effector functions aimed toward limiting pathogen burdens, minimizing tissue injury, and preventing subsequent reinfection. The evolutionary adaptation of Borrelia spirochetes to their reservoir mammalian hosts may allow for its persistence despite this immune defense. This review summarizes our current understanding of the host immune response to B. burgdorferi sensu lato, the most widely studied Borrelia spp. and etiologic agent of Lyme borreliosis. Pertinent literature will be reviewed with emphasis on in vitro, ex vivo and animal studies that influenced our understanding of both the earliest responses to B. burgdorferi as it enters the mammalian host and those that evolve as spirochetes disseminate and establish infection in multiple tissues. Our focus is on the immune response of inbred mice, the most commonly studied animal model of B. burgdorferi infection and surrogate for one of this pathogen's principle natural reservoir hosts, the white-footed deer mouse. Comparison will be made to the immune responses of humans with Lyme borreliosis. Our goal is to provide an understanding of the dynamics of the mammalian immune response during infection with B. burgdorferi and its relation to the outcomes in reservoir (mouse) and non-reservoir (human) hosts. Full article
Review
Interactions between Ticks and Lyme Disease Spirochetes
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2021, 42(1), 113-144; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.21775/cimb.042.113 - 08 Dec 2020
Viewed by 162
Abstract
Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato causes Lyme borreliosis in a variety of animals and humans. These atypical bacterial pathogens are maintained in a complex enzootic life cycle that primarily involves a vertebrate host and Ixodes spp. ticks. In the Northeastern United States, I. scapularis [...] Read more.
Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato causes Lyme borreliosis in a variety of animals and humans. These atypical bacterial pathogens are maintained in a complex enzootic life cycle that primarily involves a vertebrate host and Ixodes spp. ticks. In the Northeastern United States, I. scapularis is the main vector, while wild rodents serve as the mammalian reservoir host. As B. burgdorferi is transmitted only by I. scapularis and closely related ticks, the spirochete-tick interactions are thought to be highly specific. Various borrelial and arthropod proteins that directly or indirectly contribute to the natural cycle of B. burgdorferi infection have been identified. Discrete molecular interactions between spirochetes and tick components also have been discovered, which often play critical roles in pathogen persistence and transmission by the arthropod vector. This review will focus on the past discoveries and future challenges that are relevant to our understanding of the molecular interactions between B. burgdorferi and Ixodes ticks. This information will not only impact scientific advancements in the research of tick- transmitted infections but will also contribute to the development of novel preventive measures that interfere with the B. burgdorferi life cycle. Full article
Review
Evolutionary Genetics of Borrelia
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2021, 42(1), 97-112; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.21775/cimb.042.097 - 08 Dec 2020
Viewed by 128
Abstract
The genus Borrelia consists of evolutionarily and genetically diverse bacterial species that cause a variety of diseases in humans and domestic animals. These vector-borne spirochetes can be classified into two major evolutionary groups, the Lyme borreliosis clade and the relapsing fever clade, both [...] Read more.
The genus Borrelia consists of evolutionarily and genetically diverse bacterial species that cause a variety of diseases in humans and domestic animals. These vector-borne spirochetes can be classified into two major evolutionary groups, the Lyme borreliosis clade and the relapsing fever clade, both of which have complex transmission cycles during which they interact with multiple host species and arthropod vectors. Molecular, ecological, and evolutionary studies have each provided significant contributions towards our understanding of the natural history, biology and evolutionary genetics of Borrelia species; however, integration of these studies is required to identify the evolutionary causes and consequences of the genetic variation within and among Borrelia species. For example, molecular and genetic studies have identified the adaptations that maximize fitness components throughout the Borrelia lifecycle and enhance transmission efficacy but provide limited insights into the evolutionary pressures that have produced them. Ecological studies can identify interactions between Borrelia species and the vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors they encounter and the resulting impact on the geographic distribution and abundance of spirochetes but not the genetic or molecular basis underlying these interactions. In this review we discuss recent findings on the evolutionary genetics from both of the evolutionarily distinct clades of Borrelia species. We focus on connecting molecular interactions to the ecological processes that have driven the evolution and diversification of Borrelia species in order to understand the current distribution of genetic and molecular variation within and between Borrelia species. Full article
Review
European Surveillance of Legionnaires' Disease
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2021, 42(1), 81-96; https://doi.org/10.21775/cimb.042.081 - 07 Dec 2020
Viewed by 130
Abstract
Legionnaires' disease and Pontiac fever are both diseases with important public health implications and require prompt and thorough responses to outbreaks for future prevention. Effective methods for defining, diagnosing, reporting and responding to legionellosis outbreaks ideally should be standardized across countries. Therefore, the [...] Read more.
Legionnaires' disease and Pontiac fever are both diseases with important public health implications and require prompt and thorough responses to outbreaks for future prevention. Effective methods for defining, diagnosing, reporting and responding to legionellosis outbreaks ideally should be standardized across countries. Therefore, the European Union surveillance methods for countering Legionnaires' disease is a useful model especially for travel-associated Legionnaires' disease (TALD) cases which are on the rise. Multi-country surveillance in the EU and European Economic Area (EEA) has evolved since the first organizational efforts in the 1980's to the currently responsible, European Legionnaires' Disease Surveillance Network (ELDSNet). This chapter outlines the practices of the EU surveillance of Legionnaires' disease including their schemata, definitions, responsibilities of participating members, methods and the results of the data collected since the program's inception. Lastly, improvements must still be made as the incidence of Legionnaires' disease in the EU is likely underestimated due to underreporting and/or underdiagnosis. Nearly 70% of cases are reported from only four countries, France, Germany, Italy and Spain, which represent 50% of the EU population. Full article
Review
Alphaherpesvirus Genomics: Past, Present and Future
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2021, 42(1), 41-80; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.21775/cimb.042.041 - 07 Nov 2020
Viewed by 107
Abstract
Alphaherpesviruses, as large double-stranded DNA viruses, were long considered to be genetically stable and to exist in a homogeneous state. Recently, the proliferation of high-throughput sequencing (HTS) and bioinformatics analysis has expanded our understanding of herpesvirus genomes and the variations found therein. Recent [...] Read more.
Alphaherpesviruses, as large double-stranded DNA viruses, were long considered to be genetically stable and to exist in a homogeneous state. Recently, the proliferation of high-throughput sequencing (HTS) and bioinformatics analysis has expanded our understanding of herpesvirus genomes and the variations found therein. Recent data indicate that herpesviruses exist as diverse populations, both in culture and in vivo, in a manner reminiscent of RNA viruses. In this review, we discuss the past, present, and potential future of alphaherpesvirus genomics, including the technical challenges that face the field. We also review how recent data has enabled genome-wide comparisons of sequence diversity, recombination, allele frequency, and selective pressures, including those introduced by cell culture. While we focus on the human alphaherpesviruses, we draw key insights from related veterinary species and from the beta- and gamma-subfamilies of herpesviruses. Promising technologies and potential future directions for herpesvirus genomics are highlighted as well, including the potential to link viral genetic differences to phenotypic and disease outcomes. Full article
Review
Challenges in Having Vaccines Available to Control Transboundary Diseases of Livestock
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2021, 42(1), 1-40; https://doi.org/10.21775/cimb.042.001 - 07 Nov 2020
Viewed by 111
Abstract
The global human population is growing at a rapid rate leading to the need for continued expansion of food animal production to meet the world’s increasing nutritional requirements. As a consequence of this increased production demand, the use of high volume, animal dense [...] Read more.
The global human population is growing at a rapid rate leading to the need for continued expansion of food animal production to meet the world’s increasing nutritional requirements. As a consequence of this increased production demand, the use of high volume, animal dense systems have expanded providing high quality protein at reduced costs. Backyard animal production has also expanded. This increased food animal production has facilitated the rapid spread, mutation, and adaptation of pathogens to new hosts. This scenario continues to drive the emergence and reemergence of diseases in livestock species increasing the urgency for development and availability of vaccines for transboundary animal diseases (TADs). Even though vaccines are widely recognized as being an essential tool for control of TADs, there are many scientific, economic, political, and logistical challenges to having vaccine available to control an outbreak. This article will focus on examples of the challenges associated with having vaccines available for emergency response, as well as the characteristics of “ideal” TAD vaccines, the need for complementary diagnostic assays, and hurdles involved in bringing efficacious veterinary TAD vaccines to market including regulatory constraints and considerations for stockpiling vaccines for emergency use in non-endemic countries. Examples will also highlight the complicated interplay between animal health and human health and demonstrate the lasting benefits that can be gained from an efficacious vaccine.
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