Osteoporosis and periodontal diseases are common problems among the elderly population. Vitamin D is a secosteroid hormone that is either synthesized by human skin cells under the effect of UV radiation or consumed through diet. Deficiency in vitamin D leads to reduced bone mineral density, osteoporosis, the progression of periodontal diseases and causes resorption to occur in the jawbone. Sufficient intake of vitamin D can decrease the risk of gingivitis and chronic periodontitis, as it has been shown to have immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative effects and initiates cell apoptosis. In addition, vitamin D is also important for bone metabolism, alveolar bone resorption and preventing tooth loss. It increases antibacterial defense of gingival epithelial cells and decrease gingival inflammation, improves postoperative wound healing after periodontal surgery and is an important supplement used as prophylaxis in periodontology. This publication aims to update the recent advances, stress the clinical importance, and evaluate vitamin D in the prevention of periodontal diseases to reach a successful outcome of conservative and surgical treatment. An analysis of the literature shows that vitamin D plays a significant role in maintaining healthy periodontal and jaw bone tissues, alleviating inflammation processes, stimulating post-operative healing of periodontal tissues and the recovery of clinical parameters. However, further research is needed to clarify the required vitamin D concentration in plasma before starting periodontal treatment to achieve the best outcome.
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