Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a heterogeneous chronic inflammatory condition of the paranasal sinuses and nasal passage. It is characterized as inflammation of the sinonasal passage, presenting with two or more symptoms (nasal blockage, secretions, facial pain and headaches) for more than 12 weeks consecutively. The disease is phenotypically differentiated based on the presence of nasal polyps; CRS with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) and CRS without nasal polyps (CRSsNP). Traditionally, CRSwNP has been associated with a type 2 inflammatory profile, while CRSsNP has been associated with a type 1 inflammatory profile. Extensive work in characterizing the inflammatory profiles of CRS patients has challenged this dichotomy, with great variation both between and within populations described. Recent efforts of endotyping CRS based on underlying pathophysiology have further highlighted the heterogeneity of the disease, revealing mixed inflammatory profiles coordinated by a number of inflammatory cell types. This review will highlight the current understanding of inflammation in CRS, and discuss the importance and impact of refining this understanding in the development of appropriate treatment options for CRS sufferers.
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