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Review

The Beneficial Effects of Traditional Chinese Exercises for Adults with Low Back Pain: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

1
Lifestyle (Mind–Body Movement) Research Center, College of Sports Science, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China
2
Health and Exercise Science Laboratory, Institute of Sports Science, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea
3
Department of Health, Exercise Science and Recreation Management School of Applied Sciences, The University of Mississippi, Oxford, MS 36877, USA
4
Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Research, Alberta Health Services, Calgary, AB T2S 3G3, Canada
5
Departments of Oncology and Community Health Sciences, Cunning School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 4N1, Canada
6
Department of Martial Arts, Shanghai University of Sport, Shanghai 200438, China
7
Department of Physical Education, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 March 2019 / Revised: 24 April 2019 / Accepted: 24 April 2019 / Published: 29 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Complementary and Integrative Medicine)
Objective: The aim of this meta-analytic review was to quantitatively examine the effects of traditional Chinese exercises (TCE) on pain intensity and back disability in individuals with low back pain (LBP). Methods: Potential articles were retrieved using seven electronic databases (Medline, Embase, Cinahl, Web of Science, Cochrane library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang). The searched period was from inception to 1 March 2019. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effect of TCE on pain intensity and back disability in LBP patients were included. Pooled effect sizes were calculated using the random-effects models and 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Results: Data from eleven RCTs (886 individuals with LBP) meeting the inclusion criteria were extracted for meta-analysis. Compared with the control intervention, TCE induced significant improvements in the visual analogue scale (VAS) (Hedge’s g = −0.64, 95% CI −0.90 to −0.37, p < 0.001), Roland–Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) (Hedge’s g = −0.41, 95% CI −0.79 to −0.03, p = 0.03), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) (Hedge’s g = −0.96, 95% CI −1.42 to −0.50, p < 0.001), and cognitive function (Hedge’s g = −0.62, 95% CI −0.85 to −0.39, p < 0.001). In a meta-regression analysis, age (β = 0.01, p = 0.02) and total exercise time (β = −0.0002, p = 0.01) were associated with changes in the VAS scores, respectively. Moderator analyses demonstrated that Tai Chi practice (Hedge’s g = −0.87, 95% CI −1.38 to −0.36, p < 0.001) and Qigong (Hedge’s g = −0.54, 95% CI −0.86 to −0.23, p < 0.001) reduced VAS scores. Interventions with a frequency of 1–2 times/week (Hedge’s g = −0.53, 95% CI −0.98 to −0.07, p = 0.02) and 3–4 times/week (Hedge’s g = −0.78, 95% CI −1.15 to −0.42, p < 0.001) were associated with reduced VAS scores, but this significant reduction on this outcome was not observed in the weekly training frequency of ≥5 times (Hedge’s g = −0.54, 95% CI −1.16 to 0.08, p = 0.09). Conclusions: TCE may have beneficial effects for reducing pain intensity for individuals with LBP, regardless of their pain status. View Full-Text
Keywords: Tai Chi; mindfulness; Qigong; disability; randomized controlled trial Tai Chi; mindfulness; Qigong; disability; randomized controlled trial
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, Y.; Loprinzi, P.D.; Yang, L.; Liu, J.; Liu, S.; Zou, L. The Beneficial Effects of Traditional Chinese Exercises for Adults with Low Back Pain: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Medicina 2019, 55, 118. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina55050118

AMA Style

Zhang Y, Loprinzi PD, Yang L, Liu J, Liu S, Zou L. The Beneficial Effects of Traditional Chinese Exercises for Adults with Low Back Pain: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Medicina. 2019; 55(5):118. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina55050118

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhang, Yanjie; Loprinzi, Paul D.; Yang, Lin; Liu, Jing; Liu, Shijie; Zou, Liye. 2019. "The Beneficial Effects of Traditional Chinese Exercises for Adults with Low Back Pain: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials" Medicina 55, no. 5: 118. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina55050118

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