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From Pre-Diabetes to Diabetes: Diagnosis, Treatments and Translational Research

School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 62 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637459, Singapore
School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 21 Nanyang Link, Singapore 637371, Singapore
School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551, Singapore
Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 201204, China
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, 171 65 Solna, Sweden
Department of Microbiology, Tumor, and Cell Biology (MTC), Karolinska Institutet, Biomedicum, Solnavägen 9, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Contributed equally to this work.
Received: 29 June 2019 / Revised: 16 August 2019 / Accepted: 23 August 2019 / Published: 29 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Type 2 Diabetes and Insulin Resistance)
Diabetes, a silent killer, is one of the most widely prevalent conditions of the present time. According to the 2017 International Diabetes Federation (IDF) statistics, the global prevalence of diabetes among the age group of 20–79 years is 8.8%. In addition, 1 in every 2 persons is unaware of the condition. This unawareness and ignorance lead to further complications. Pre-diabetes is the preceding condition of diabetes, and in most of the cases, this ultimately leads to the development of diabetes. Diabetes can be classified into three types, namely type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and gestational diabetes. The diagnosis of both pre-diabetes and diabetes is based on glucose criteria; the common modalities used are fasting plasma glucose (FPG) test and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). A glucometer is commonly used by diabetic patients to measure blood glucose levels with fast and rather accurate measurements. A few of the more advanced and minimally invasive modalities include the glucose-sensing patch, SwEatch, eyeglass biosensor, breath analysis, etc. Despite a considerable amount of data being collected and analyzed regarding diabetes, the actual molecular mechanism of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is still unknown. Both genetic and epigenetic factors are associated with T2DM. The complications of diabetes can predominantly be classified into two categories: microvascular and macrovascular. Retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy are grouped under microvascular complications, whereas stroke, cardiovascular disease, and peripheral artery disease (PAD) belong to macrovascular complications. Unfortunately, until now, no complete cure for diabetes has been found. However, the treatment of pre-diabetes has shown significant success in preventing the further progression of diabetes. To prevent pre-diabetes from developing into T2DM, lifestyle intervention has been found to be very promising. Various aspects of diabetes, including the aforementioned topics, have been reviewed in this paper. View Full-Text
Keywords: diabetes; pre-diabetes; insulin resistance; hyperglycemia diabetes; pre-diabetes; insulin resistance; hyperglycemia
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MDPI and ACS Style

Khan, R.M.M.; Chua, Z.J.Y.; Tan, J.C.; Yang, Y.; Liao, Z.; Zhao, Y. From Pre-Diabetes to Diabetes: Diagnosis, Treatments and Translational Research. Medicina 2019, 55, 546.

AMA Style

Khan RMM, Chua ZJY, Tan JC, Yang Y, Liao Z, Zhao Y. From Pre-Diabetes to Diabetes: Diagnosis, Treatments and Translational Research. Medicina. 2019; 55(9):546.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Khan, Radia M.M., Zoey J.Y. Chua, Jia C. Tan, Yingying Yang, Zehuan Liao, and Yan Zhao. 2019. "From Pre-Diabetes to Diabetes: Diagnosis, Treatments and Translational Research" Medicina 55, no. 9: 546.

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