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The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Endurance and Ultra-Endurance Running
Article

Increased Psychological Distress, Loneliness, and Unemployment in the Spread of COVID-19 over 6 Months in Germany

1
Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Campus Charité Mitte, Charité—Universitätsmedizin Berlin, 10117 Berlin, Germany
2
Department of Education and Psychology, Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Freie Universität Berlin, 14195 Berlin, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 November 2020 / Revised: 2 January 2021 / Accepted: 7 January 2021 / Published: 9 January 2021
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic poses a challenge to global mental health. Loneliness and isolation may put people at higher risk for increased psychological distress. However, there is a lack of research investigating the development of COVID-19-related distress over time. Materials and Methods: We undertook an online survey among general population (N = 1903) in Germany throughout 6 months from the peak transmission period in April to the off-peak period by September 2020. Results: We found that the average prevalence of psychological distress caused by the COVID-19 pandemic significantly rose from 24% to 66% between the peak and off-peak transmission period, respectively. Unemployment rate and loneliness increased negative mental health outcomes, although the number of active COVID-19 cases decreased from April to September. Psychological distress scores increased mostly in female, young, and lonely people. Conclusions: Our results underline the importance of considering innovative alternatives to facilitate employment opportunities, distant contacts, and self-help over the course of the pandemic. Our study highlights the urgent need to pay attention to mental health services specifically targeting female, young, unemployed, and lonely people. View Full-Text
Keywords: mental health and wellbeing; perceived social isolation; national and international survey; across cultures and over time; Sino-German assessment and evaluation; prevention policies; management in epidemics and pandemics; jobs and economic transformation; workforce recovery strategy mental health and wellbeing; perceived social isolation; national and international survey; across cultures and over time; Sino-German assessment and evaluation; prevention policies; management in epidemics and pandemics; jobs and economic transformation; workforce recovery strategy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, S.; Heinzel, S.; Haucke, M.N.; Heinz, A. Increased Psychological Distress, Loneliness, and Unemployment in the Spread of COVID-19 over 6 Months in Germany. Medicina 2021, 57, 53. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57010053

AMA Style

Liu S, Heinzel S, Haucke MN, Heinz A. Increased Psychological Distress, Loneliness, and Unemployment in the Spread of COVID-19 over 6 Months in Germany. Medicina. 2021; 57(1):53. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57010053

Chicago/Turabian Style

Liu, Shuyan, Stephan Heinzel, Matthias N. Haucke, and Andreas Heinz. 2021. "Increased Psychological Distress, Loneliness, and Unemployment in the Spread of COVID-19 over 6 Months in Germany" Medicina 57, no. 1: 53. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57010053

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