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Medicina, Volume 57, Issue 5 (May 2021) – 114 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Diabetic neuropathy is an independent risk factor for falls, with injury, psychological distress and physical activity curtailment as clinical implications. Absent sensory feedback and the deterioration of motor function, resulting from sensory–motor neuropathy, are fundamental underpinning factors. Sensory–motor mechanisms cause alterations to gait biomechanics, inducing balance impairment and increasing fall risk. Optimising the interventions that target these sensory–motor mechanisms is essential. View this paper
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Article
Ultrasound Imaging Analysis of the Lumbar Multifidus Muscle Echo Intensity: Intra-Rater and Inter-Rater Reliability of a Novice and an Experienced Rater
Medicina 2021, 57(5), 512; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57050512 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 533
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Ultrasound echo intensity (EI) of the lumbar multifidus muscle (LMM) could offer valuable insights regarding muscle quality in people with low back pain (LBP). However, whether the rater’s experience noticeably influences the reliability and precision of LMM EI measurements [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Ultrasound echo intensity (EI) of the lumbar multifidus muscle (LMM) could offer valuable insights regarding muscle quality in people with low back pain (LBP). However, whether the rater’s experience noticeably influences the reliability and precision of LMM EI measurements has not been established. The aims of this study were to investigate the intra-rater and inter-rater reliability of LMM EI measurements, and to compare the reliability and SEM between a novice and an experienced rater. Materials and Methods: Twenty athletes (10 females, 10 males) with a history of LBP were included in this study. Transverse ultrasound images of LMM were taken at L5 in prone. LMM EI measurements were obtained bilaterally by tracing the maximum ROI representing the LMM cross-sectional area (CSA), avoiding the inclusion of bone or surrounding fascia. All measurements were performed by two novice raters and an experienced researcher. Each measurement was acquired by each rater three times for each side on three different images, and the average was used in the analyses. Raters were blinded to each other’s measurements and the participant’s clinical information. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) were obtained to assess the intra-rater and inter-rater reliability. Results: The intra-rater ICC values for the LMM measurements for the experienced rater were excellent (ICC all > 0.997). The inter-rater reliability ICC values showed moderate to excellent reliability (0.614 to 0.994) and agreement between the novice raters and the experienced rater, except for Novice 1 for the right LMM, which revealed lower ICCs and a wider 95% CI. Intra-rater and inter-rater reliability results were similar when separately looking at the right and left side of the muscle and participant gender. Conclusions: Our findings support the clinical use of ultrasound imaging for the assessment of LMM EI in individuals with LBP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Musculoskeletal Spine Imaging and Rehabilitation)
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Case Report
Drastic Cardiac Reverse Remodeling Following Catheter Ablation in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation and Heart Failure
Medicina 2021, 57(5), 511; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57050511 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 467
Abstract
In the management of atrial fibrillation in patients with heart failure, rate control is recommended, whereas the implication of rhythm control remains controversial. We experienced a 65-year-old man who had compensated heart failure due to hypertensive heart disease and atrial fibrillation with well-controlled [...] Read more.
In the management of atrial fibrillation in patients with heart failure, rate control is recommended, whereas the implication of rhythm control remains controversial. We experienced a 65-year-old man who had compensated heart failure due to hypertensive heart disease and atrial fibrillation with well-controlled heart rate (<100 bpm). At three months following the catheter ablation procedure, the left ventricular ejection fraction improved from 40% up to 65%. The implication of rhythm control using catheter ablation in improving cardiac reverse remodeling should be validated in large-scale clinical studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heart Failure)
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Opinion
European Network on Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (EUROMENE): Expert Consensus on the Diagnosis, Service Provision, and Care of People with ME/CFS in Europe
Medicina 2021, 57(5), 510; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57050510 - 19 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2014
Abstract
Designed by a group of ME/CFS researchers and health professionals, the European Network on Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (EUROMENE) has received funding from the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST)—COST action 15111—from 2016 to 2020. The main goal of the Cost Action [...] Read more.
Designed by a group of ME/CFS researchers and health professionals, the European Network on Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (EUROMENE) has received funding from the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST)—COST action 15111—from 2016 to 2020. The main goal of the Cost Action was to assess the existing knowledge and experience on health care delivery for people with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) in European countries, and to enhance coordinated research and health care provision in this field. We report our findings and make recommendations for clinical diagnosis, health services and care for people with ME/CFS in Europe, as prepared by the group of clinicians and researchers from 22 countries and 55 European health professionals and researchers, who have been informed by people with ME/CFS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue ME/CFS: Causes, Clinical Features and Diagnosis)
Article
The Long-Term Functional Effect of Thrombectomy on Patients with Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Who Exhibit Moderate to Severe Disability
Medicina 2021, 57(5), 509; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57050509 - 19 May 2021
Viewed by 433
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Endovascular thrombectomy (EVT is an emerging gold standard treatment for acute cerebral infarction and may allow functional improvement after subacute cerebral infarction. However, the long-term functional benefits of EVT in patients with moderate to severe disability remain unclear. We [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Endovascular thrombectomy (EVT is an emerging gold standard treatment for acute cerebral infarction and may allow functional improvement after subacute cerebral infarction. However, the long-term functional benefits of EVT in patients with moderate to severe disability remain unclear. We investigated the effects of EVT on the activities of daily living (ADL), handicap, gait, and eating in patients with middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion who exhibited moderate to severe disability (score of 3–5 on the modified Rankin scale (mRS)) due to stroke, up to six months after onset. Materials and Methods: This retrospective longitudinal case–control study assessed 45 patients with MCA occlusion who exhibited moderate to severe disability (mRS score ≥ 3): 15 underwent EVT and 30 served as controls. Clinical assessments were conducted at two weeks (12–16 days), four weeks (26–30 days), and six months (180–210 days) after stroke onset. Functional assessments comprised the Korean version of the modified Barthel index (MBI), mRS, functional ambulation category (FAC), and dysphagia outcome severity scale (DOSS) to assess disability, handicap, gait, and eating. Results: The MBI, mRS, FAC, and DOSS scores all improved significantly (all p < 0.05) in the EVT group, compared to the controls. Conclusions: EVT has favorable effects on performing routine ADL, the handicap itself, walking, and eating. Therefore, EVT is recommended for patients with acute MCA occlusion, including those with severe disability at the initial assessment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Treatment and Outcomes of Acute Ischemic Stroke)
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Article
Post-Progression Survival Is Strongly Associated with Overall Survival in Patients Exhibiting Postoperative Relapse of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Harboring Sensitizing EGFR Mutations
Medicina 2021, 57(5), 508; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57050508 - 19 May 2021
Viewed by 465
Abstract
Background and Objective: Patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring sensitizing epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations show a good response to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs). The subsequent treatments influence the evaluability of the efficacy of front-line therapy on [...] Read more.
Background and Objective: Patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring sensitizing epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations show a good response to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs). The subsequent treatments influence the evaluability of the efficacy of front-line therapy on overall survival (OS). Consequently, we evaluated the associations of relapse-free survival (RFS) and post-progression survival (PPS) with OS in patients who exhibited postoperative relapse of EGFR-mutated NSCLC. Materials and Methods: We analyzed the data of 35 patients with EGFR-mutated NSCLC who underwent complete resection between January 2007 and June 2019. The correlations of RFS and PPS with OS were evaluated at the individual patient level. Results: Linear regression and Spearman’s rank correlation analyses demonstrated that the PPS highly correlated with OS (r = 0.91, p < 0.05, R2 = 0.85), whereas the RFS weakly associated with OS (r = 0.36, p < 0.05, R2 = 0.25). Age and performance status at relapse were significantly associated with PPS. Conclusion: Overall, PPS was more strongly and significantly associated with OS than RFS. These results suggest that the OS of our cohort may be affected by treatments, besides postoperative relapse. However, larger-scale prospective studies are needed to confirm these results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Therapies for Non-small Cell Lung Cancer)
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Article
Stroke Patients’ Characteristics and Clinical Outcomes: A Pre-Post COVID-19 Comparison Study
Medicina 2021, 57(5), 507; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57050507 - 19 May 2021
Viewed by 700
Abstract
Background and Objectives: The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused significant disruption to established medical care systems globally. Thus, this study was aimed to compare the admission and outcome variables such as number of patient and its severity, acute recanalisation therapy given [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused significant disruption to established medical care systems globally. Thus, this study was aimed to compare the admission and outcome variables such as number of patient and its severity, acute recanalisation therapy given pre-post COVID-19 at a primary stroke centre located in Malaysia. Methods: This cross-sectional hospital-based study included adult ischaemic stroke patients. Variables of the study included the number of ischaemic stroke patients, the proportions of recanalisation therapies, stroke severity during admission based on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, functional outcome at discharge based on the modified Rankin Scale, and relevant workflow metrics. We compared the outcome between two six-month periods, namely the pre-COVID-19 period (March 2019 to September 2019) and the COVID-19 period (March 2020 to September 2020). Results: There were 131 and 156 patients, respectively, from the pre-COVID-19 period and the COVID-19 period. The median door-to-scan time and the median door-to-reperfusion time were both significantly shorter in the COVID-19 period (24.5 min versus 12.0 min, p = 0.047) and (93.5 min versus 60.0 min, p = 0.015), respectively. There were also significantly more patients who received intravenous thrombolysis (7.6% versus 17.3%, p = 0.015) and mechanical thrombectomy (0.8% versus 6.4%, p = 0.013) in the COVID-19 period, respectively. Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic may not have caused disruptions of acute stroke care in our primary stroke centre. Our data indicated that the number of ischaemic stroke events remained stable, with a significant increase of recanalisation therapies and better in-hospital workflow metrics during the COVID-19 pandemic period. However, we would like to highlight that the burden of COVID-19 cases in the study area was very low. Therefore, the study may not have captured the true burden (and relevant delays in stroke patient management) during the COVID-19 pandemic. The effect of the pandemic crisis is ongoing and both pre-hospital and in-hospital care systems must continue to provide optimal, highly time-dependent stroke care services. Full article
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Review
GERD after Bariatric Surgery. Can We Expect Endoscopic Findings?
Medicina 2021, 57(5), 506; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57050506 - 17 May 2021
Viewed by 626
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Bariatric surgery remains the gold standard treatment for morbidly obese patients. Roux-en-y gastric bypass and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy are the most frequently performed surgeries worldwide. Obesity has also been related to gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The management of a [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Bariatric surgery remains the gold standard treatment for morbidly obese patients. Roux-en-y gastric bypass and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy are the most frequently performed surgeries worldwide. Obesity has also been related to gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The management of a preoperative diagnosis of GERD, with/without hiatal hernia before bariatric surgery, is mandatory. Endoscopy can show abnormal findings that might influence the final type of surgery. The aim of this article is to discuss and review the evidence related to the endoscopic findings after bariatric surgery. Materials and Methods: A systematic review of the literature has been conducted, including all recent articles related to endoscopic findings after bariatric surgery. Our review of the literature has included 140 articles, of which, after final review, only eight were included. The polled articles included discussion of the endoscopy findings after roux-en-y gastric bypass and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. Results: We found that the specific care of bariatric patients might include an endoscopic diagnosis when GERD symptoms are present. Conclusions: Recent evidence has shown that endoscopic follow-up after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy could be advisable, due to the pathological findings in endoscopic procedures in asymptomatic patients. Full article
Article
Influence of COVID-19 Pandemic Lockdown on Patients from the Bariatric Surgery Waiting List
Medicina 2021, 57(5), 505; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57050505 - 17 May 2021
Viewed by 629
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Social isolation and lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic have influenced dietary habits and physical activity of all the population, but the obese population is the most vulnerable to weight gain. Material and Methods: A group of 189 patients [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Social isolation and lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic have influenced dietary habits and physical activity of all the population, but the obese population is the most vulnerable to weight gain. Material and Methods: A group of 189 patients (166 female and 23 male) from the bariatric surgery waiting list filled in a survey about the influence of COVID-19 pandemic lockdown on their dietary habits, physical activity, and the possibility of contact with their bariatric care center. Results: The majority of patients with weight gain declared a decrease in physical activity, compared to half of the patients without weight gain (50.5% vs. 74.5%, p < 0.05). The continuation of bariatric care and the possibility of contact with a bariatric surgeon, dietician, and psychologist had each significant influence on reducing the risk of patients’ weight gain (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Maintaining physical activity and contact with bariatric care specialists are important factors in allowing to avoid weight gain in patients waiting for bariatric surgery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Surgery)
Article
Electrocardiographic Abnormalities and Mortality in Epilepsy Patients
Medicina 2021, 57(5), 504; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57050504 - 16 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 486
Abstract
Background and Objectives: People with epilepsy (PWE) have a 2–3 times higher mortality rate than the general population. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) comprises a significant proportion of premature deaths, whereas sudden cardiac death (SCD) is among the leading causes of [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: People with epilepsy (PWE) have a 2–3 times higher mortality rate than the general population. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) comprises a significant proportion of premature deaths, whereas sudden cardiac death (SCD) is among the leading causes of sudden death in the general population. Cardiac pathologies are significantly more prevalent in PWE. Whether electrocardiographic (ECG) parameters are associated with remote death in PWE has yet to be elucidated. The study objective was to assess whether interictal ECG parameters are associated with mortality in the long-term. Materials and Methods: The study involved 471 epilepsy patients who were hospitalized after a bilateral tonic-clonic seizure(s). ECG parameters were obtained on the day of hospitalization (heart rate, PQ interval, QRS complex, QT interval, heart rate corrected QT interval (QTc), ST segment and T wave changes), as well as reported ECG abnormalities. Mortality data were obtained from the Latvian National Cause-of-Death database 3–11, mean 7.0 years after hospitalization. The association between the ECG parameters and the long-term clinical outcome were examined. Results: At the time of assessment, 75.4% of patients were alive and 24.6% were deceased. Short QTc interval (odds ratio (OR) 4.780; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.668–13.698; p = 0.004) was associated with a remote death. After the exclusion of known comorbidities with high mortality rates, short QTc (OR 4.631) and ECG signs of left ventricular hypertrophy (OR 5.009) were associated with a remote death. Conclusions: The association between routine 12-lead rest ECG parameters—short QTc interval and a pattern of left ventricular hypertrophy—and remote death in epilepsy patients was found. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to associate rest ECG parameters with remote death in an epileptic population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Neurology)
Review
Foundational Statistical Principles in Medical Research: Sensitivity, Specificity, Positive Predictive Value, and Negative Predictive Value
Medicina 2021, 57(5), 503; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57050503 - 16 May 2021
Viewed by 536
Abstract
Sensitivity, which denotes the proportion of subjects correctly given a positive assignment out of all subjects who are actually positive for the outcome, indicates how well a test can classify subjects who truly have the outcome of interest. Specificity, which denotes the proportion [...] Read more.
Sensitivity, which denotes the proportion of subjects correctly given a positive assignment out of all subjects who are actually positive for the outcome, indicates how well a test can classify subjects who truly have the outcome of interest. Specificity, which denotes the proportion of subjects correctly given a negative assignment out of all subjects who are actually negative for the outcome, indicates how well a test can classify subjects who truly do not have the outcome of interest. Positive predictive value reflects the proportion of subjects with a positive test result who truly have the outcome of interest. Negative predictive value reflects the proportion of subjects with a negative test result who truly do not have the outcome of interest. Sensitivity and specificity are inversely related, wherein one increases as the other decreases, but are generally considered stable for a given test, whereas positive and negative predictive values do inherently vary with pre-test probability (e.g., changes in population disease prevalence). This article will further detail the concepts of sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values using a recent real-world example from the medical literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Epidemiology & Public Health)
Article
From Benign Inflammatory Dermatosis to Cutaneous Lymphoma. DNA Copy Number Imbalances in Mycosis Fungoides versus Large Plaque Parapsoriasis
Medicina 2021, 57(5), 502; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57050502 - 15 May 2021
Viewed by 589
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Mycosis fungoides (MF) and large plaque parapsoriasis (LPP) evolution provide intriguing data and are the cause of numerous debates. The diagnosis of MF and LPP is associated with confusion and imprecise definition. Copy number alterations (CNAs) may play an essential [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Mycosis fungoides (MF) and large plaque parapsoriasis (LPP) evolution provide intriguing data and are the cause of numerous debates. The diagnosis of MF and LPP is associated with confusion and imprecise definition. Copy number alterations (CNAs) may play an essential role in the genesis of cancer out of genes expression dysregulation. Objectives: Due to the heterogeneity of MF and LPP and the scarcity of the cases, there are an exceedingly small number of studies that have identified molecular changes in these pathologies. We aim to identify and compare DNA copy number alterations and gene expression changes between MF and LPP to highlight the similarities and the differences between these pathologies. Materials and Methods: The patients were prospectively selected from University Clinic of Dermatology and Venereology Timișoara, Romania. From fresh frozen skin biopsies, we extracted DNA using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data. The use of SNP array for copy number profiling is a promising approach for genome-wide analysis. Results: After reviewing each group, we observed that the histograms generated for chromosome 1–22 were remarkably similar and had a lot of CNAs in common, but also significant differences were seen. Conclusions: This study took a step forward in finding out the differences and similarities between MF and LPP, for a more specific and implicitly correct approach of the case. The similarity between these two pathologies in terms of CNAs is striking, emphasizing once again the difficulty of approaching and differentiating them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Cancer Biology)
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Review
Expectations and Challenges of First-Line Maintenance Therapy for Advanced Ovarian Cancer
Medicina 2021, 57(5), 501; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57050501 - 15 May 2021
Viewed by 563
Abstract
The incidence of ovarian cancer, which has had a poor prognosis, is increasing annually. Currently, the prognosis is expected to improve with the use of molecular-targeted drugs and immune checkpoint inhibitors as maintenance therapies after the first-line chemotherapy. The GOG218 and ICON7 studies [...] Read more.
The incidence of ovarian cancer, which has had a poor prognosis, is increasing annually. Currently, the prognosis is expected to improve with the use of molecular-targeted drugs and immune checkpoint inhibitors as maintenance therapies after the first-line chemotherapy. The GOG218 and ICON7 studies reported the usefulness of bevacizumab and the SOLO-1 and PRIMA (A Phase 3, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Multicenter Study of Niraparib Maintenance Treatment in Patients With Advanced Ovarian Cancer Following Response on Front-Line Platinum-Based Chemotherapy) studies have reported the usefulness of olaparib and niraparib, respectively. The ATHENA study investigating the usefulness of rucaparib is currently ongoing. Although clinical studies of immune checkpoint inhibitors are lagging in the field of gynecology, many clinical studies using programmed death cell-1 (PD-1) and PD-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) antibodies are currently ongoing. Some biomarkers have been identified for molecular-targeted drugs, but none have been identified for immune checkpoint inhibitors, which is a challenge that should be addressed in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment for Diseases Specific to Women)
Review
Ergonomics in Interventional Radiology: Awareness Is Mandatory
Medicina 2021, 57(5), 500; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57050500 - 14 May 2021
Viewed by 480
Abstract
Ergonomics in interventional radiology has not been thoroughly evaluated. Like any operators, interventional radiologists are exposed to the risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders. The use of lead shielding to radiation exposure and the lack of ergonomic principles developed so far contribute to these [...] Read more.
Ergonomics in interventional radiology has not been thoroughly evaluated. Like any operators, interventional radiologists are exposed to the risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders. The use of lead shielding to radiation exposure and the lack of ergonomic principles developed so far contribute to these disorders, which may potentially affect their livelihoods, quality of life, and productivity. The objectives of this review were to describe the different situations encountered in interventional radiology and to compile the strategies both available to date and in development to improve ergonomics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Interventional Oncology)
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Article
SARS-CoV-2 Infection Susceptibility of Pregnant Patients at Term Regarding ABO and Rh Blood Groups: A Cohort Study
Medicina 2021, 57(5), 499; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57050499 - 14 May 2021
Viewed by 495
Abstract
Background and Objectives: The susceptibility of pregnant patients at term to SARS-CoV-2 infection regarding the ABO and Rh blood group polymorphism was analyzed in this study. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, 457 patients admitted for delivery at term in our [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The susceptibility of pregnant patients at term to SARS-CoV-2 infection regarding the ABO and Rh blood group polymorphism was analyzed in this study. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, 457 patients admitted for delivery at term in our hospital, between 1 April 2020 and 31 December 2020 were studied. There were 46 positive and 411 SARS-CoV-2 negative patients. Their values for RT-PCR, ABO, and Rh blood group analyses, which were determined upon admittance, were studied. Results: A slightly higher percentage of infected pregnant patients at term belonged to the A blood group compared with the percentage belonging to the other blood groups; this was also true for the healthy control group. For the Rh-negative pregnant patients at term, the odds of being infected with SARS-CoV-2 was OR = 1.22 compared with Rh-positive patients where OR = 1. In our study, the highest risk was found among BIII Rh-negative pregnant patients at term (OR = 3). None of the above differences were statistically significant. Conclusions: No significant difference was found between the percentage of ABO or Rh blood groups in SARS-CoV-2 positive patients when compared with SARS-CoV-2 negative patients (p = 0.562). Full article
Article
Prognostic Impact of Pretreatment 2-[18F]-FDG PET/CT Parameters in Primary Gastric DLBCL
Medicina 2021, 57(5), 498; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57050498 - 14 May 2021
Viewed by 426
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Primary gastric diffuse large-B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is an aggressive lymphoma subtype with high 18F-FDG avidity but unclear criteria for 2-[18F]-FDG PET/CT in the evaluation of treatment response and prognostication. Our aim was to investigate whether [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Primary gastric diffuse large-B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is an aggressive lymphoma subtype with high 18F-FDG avidity but unclear criteria for 2-[18F]-FDG PET/CT in the evaluation of treatment response and prognostication. Our aim was to investigate whether the pretreatment 2-[18F]-FDG PET/CT variables may predict treatment response (at end of first-line therapy) and prognosis in primary gastric DLBCL. Materials and Methods: we included 57 patients with a diagnosis of primary gastric DLBCL and a baseline 2-[18F]-FDG PET/CT and an end of treatment PET/CT after 6 cycles of R-CHOP chemotherapy. We analyzed PET images qualitatively and semi-quantitatively by deriving the maximum standardized uptake value body weight (SUVbw), the maximum standardized uptake value lean body mass (SUVlbm), the maximum standardized uptake value body surface area (SUVbsa), lesion to liver SUVmax ratio (L-L SUV R), lesion to blood-pool SUVmax ratio (L-BP SUV R), metabolic tumor volume and total lesion glycolysis of gastric lesion (gMTV and gTLG), and total MTV (tMTV) and TLG. Survival curves were plotted according to the Kaplan–Meier analysis. Results: at a median follow up of 80 months, the median PFS and OS were 69 and 80 months. Baseline gMTV, gTLG, tMTV, and TLG were significantly higher in patients with incomplete response (partial response and progression) compared to complete response group. tMTV and TLG were confirmed to be independent prognostic factors both for PFS (p = 0.023 and p = 0.038) and OS (p = 0.038 and p = 0.026); instead, the other metabolic parameters were not related to outcome survival. Conclusions: high tMTV and TLG were significantly correlated with shorter survival (PFS and OS) and may predict incomplete response after therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 2-[18F]-FDG PET/CT in Oncology: New Evidences and Future Perspectives)
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Case Report
Conservative Approach in the Management of Large Periapical Cyst-Like Lesions. A Report of Two Cases
Medicina 2021, 57(5), 497; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57050497 - 14 May 2021
Viewed by 522
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Periapical cystic lesions are a pathology frequently addressed to endodontic specialists. Although their therapy is still not standardized, the treatment should be as conservative as possible and by endodontic means, as they are lesions of endodontic origin. The present [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Periapical cystic lesions are a pathology frequently addressed to endodontic specialists. Although their therapy is still not standardized, the treatment should be as conservative as possible and by endodontic means, as they are lesions of endodontic origin. The present case report describes two cases of upper central incisors with large cyst-like periapical lesions, and their one-year follow up. Materials and Methods: Endodontic orthograde treatment was performed under copious irrigation with sodium hypochlorite, in association with calcium hydroxide as an intra-canal medication for both teeth. Root canal filling was achieved in a separate appointment using the continuous wave of condensation technique. A decompression procedure was used in association with endodontic therapy in the second case to reduce the pressure inside the cystic lesion and to allow its drainage, and only because the root canal could not be dried three weeks after medication. Initial cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) investigations, as well as at the one-year follow up, were used to compare the evolution of the lesion. Results: Both cases had a favorable outcome. New bone formation in the periapical region and complete resolution of the lesion was observed at the one-year control in the first case. In the second case, although the lesion was still not completely healed at 12 months, a significant reduction in its size could be observed, showing active signs of healing. Conclusions: Endodontic treatment is the first choice option in the management of teeth with pulpal necrosis and large periapical cystic-like lesions. Decompression is the only surgical procedure recommended when the canals cannot be dried and obturated. Large surgical interventions are unnecessary in cases where endodontic treatment can be performed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dentistry)
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Article
Guidelines for Reopening a Nation in a SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic: A Path Forward
Medicina 2021, 57(5), 496; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57050496 - 14 May 2021
Viewed by 647
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Action, not fear, is the path forward in the coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Since early 2020, the world’s nations have faced conundrums over severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections resulting in COVID-19 resulting [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Action, not fear, is the path forward in the coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Since early 2020, the world’s nations have faced conundrums over severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections resulting in COVID-19 resulting in national closures, and thus, a clear understandable plan that nations can implement is required to reopen. The healthcare benefits of reopening a nation more likely than not exceed the benefits of continued pandemic-related closure. Pandemic-related closures have resulted in countless delayed or avoided urgent care evaluations. Furthermore, routine care of acute and chronic illnesses, including evaluations, diagnoses, and treatments, has also been delayed. Isolation, loss of income, and fear have resulted in mental health conditions or exacerbated existing conditions. The magnitude of untoward ramifications is unknown and may ultimately represent an inestimable degree of danger and morbidity, and even death. The pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 has created an atmosphere of fear of COVID-19 that has directly and indirectly injured the world’s population. Since this has resulted in increasing morbidity and mortality, creating economic chaos, and near systemic collapse of educational systems with no well described plan forward, it is the purpose of this study to provide guidelines that provide a path forward to safely open a nation. Physicians often equipped by their education, training, and experiences across disciplines are uniquely positioned to comprehend, coordinate, and teach other physicians, business owners, and municipal and government leaders from guidelines. As such, physicians may take the lead in a path forward to reopening a nation, including opening businesses, educational facilities, and religious establishments, while minimizing the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Materials and Methods: Reviews of the literature among the disciplines of environmental air, sanitation, social interaction, medical testing, vaccination, protection, and disease prevention and safety allowed for the conceptualization and eventual genesis of identifiable interventions which either reduce the viral load in the environment or inactivate the virus from replication. Each of the guidelines was selected based on the principle that it involved the elimination or inactivation of the viral particle. With a reduction in viral load or inactivation of replication, the implementation of these guidelines is expected to allow for reopening a nation with an increased level of safety. Results: The guidelines identified, including air exchange (ventilation), air filtration, personal protective filtering devices (masks), hand hygiene, social distancing, screening and testing, vaccines, high-risk patient protection, medical management, and adjunctive therapies, are described and referenced. Conclusions: In that the pandemic is primarily a public health issue, the path forward is best coordinated by local, regional, and national physicians. Many physicians with a breadth of experiences are uniquely positioned to coordinate the implementation of these interdisciplinary guidelines. Using these guidelines as a planned, coordinated action, not fear, is a path forward. Nations have a decision to make: closuring versus opening. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Infectious Disease)
Case Report
An Unusual Case of Meckel Diverticulitis Misdiagnosed as an Infected Urachal Cyst
Medicina 2021, 57(5), 495; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57050495 - 13 May 2021
Viewed by 452
Abstract
Introduction: Meckel’s diverticulum (MD), a remnant of the omphaloenteric duct, is among the most frequent intestinal malformations. Another embryonic vestige is the urachus, which obliterates, becoming the median umbilical ligament; the failure of this process can lead to a urachal cyst formation. We [...] Read more.
Introduction: Meckel’s diverticulum (MD), a remnant of the omphaloenteric duct, is among the most frequent intestinal malformations. Another embryonic vestige is the urachus, which obliterates, becoming the median umbilical ligament; the failure of this process can lead to a urachal cyst formation. We present a case of Meckel diverticulitis misdiagnosed as an infected urachal cyst. Presentation of case: A 16-year-old girl presented with hypogastric pain, fever and vomiting. She had undergone an appendectomy 6 years prior and no digestive malformation had been documented. In the last 2 years, she had 3 events of urinary tract infections with Escherichia coli, and anabdominal ultrasound discovered a 28/21 mm hypoechogenic preperitoneal round tumor, anterosuperior to the bladder. We established the diagnosis of an infected urachal cyst, confirmed later by magnetic resonance imaging. Intraoperative, we found MD with necrotic diverticulitis attached to the bladder dome. Discussions: Meckel’s diverticulum and urachal cyst (UC) are embryonic remnants. Both conditions are usually asymptomatic, being incidentally discovered during imaging or surgery performed for other abdominal pathology. Imaging diagnosis is accurate for UC, but for MD they are low sensitivity and specificity. For UC treatment, there is a tendency to follow an algorithm related to age and symptoms, but there is no general consensus on whether to perform a routine resection of incidentally discovered MD. Conclusion: Preoperatory diagnosis of MD represents a challenge. We want to emphasize the necessity of a thorough inspection of the small bowel during all abdominal surgical interventions and MD surgical excision regardless of its macroscopic appearance. These two actions seem to be the best prophylaxis measures for MD complications and consequently to avoid emergency surgery, in which case more extensive surgical procedures on an unstable patient may be needed. Full article
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Article
Second Primary Tumors in Patients with Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: A Single-Center Experience
Medicina 2021, 57(5), 494; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57050494 - 13 May 2021
Viewed by 356
Abstract
Background and Objectives: In this study, we investigated the frequency and type of second primary malignant tumors (SPMTs) accompanying gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), patient and tumor characteristics, and follow-up and survival data. Materials and Methods: We included 20 patients with SPMTs [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: In this study, we investigated the frequency and type of second primary malignant tumors (SPMTs) accompanying gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), patient and tumor characteristics, and follow-up and survival data. Materials and Methods: We included 20 patients with SPMTs from a total of 103 patients with GISTs in a single center in Turkey. At the time of GIST diagnosis, patient age, sex, presentation symptoms, localization, pathological features of the tumor, stage, recurrence risk scoring for localized disease, treatments received, time of SPMT association, follow-up times, and survival analysis were recorded for each patient. Localization, histopathology, and stage of SPMT accompanying GISTs were also recorded accordingly. Results: SPMT was detected in 19.4% of patients with GISTs. Of the patients, 50% were men and 50% were women. The mean age at the time of diagnosis of GIST was 63.8 ± 10.81 years (range: 39–77 years). Of the GISTs, 60% were localized in the stomach, 25% in the small intestine, and 70% were at low risk. Of the SPMTs, 60% were in the gastrointestinal system. SPMTs were diagnosed as synchronous with GISTs in 50% of the patients. The mean follow-up period of the patients from the diagnosis of GIST was 45.6 (0.43–129.6) months. When the data were finalized, 5% died due to GIST, 35% died due to SPMT, and 15% died due to non-disease-related causes. Conclusions: SPMT was detected in 19.4% of patients with GISTs. GISTs were frequently located in the stomach, and most of them were at low risk. The most common SPMTs were gastrointestinal system tumors, and their coexistence was found to be synchronous. Most patients died due to SPMT during follow-up. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Oncology)
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Systematic Review
Should We Be Concerned about the Association of Diabetes Mellitus and Periodontal Disease in the Risk of Infection by SARS-CoV-2? A Systematic Review and Hypothesis
Medicina 2021, 57(5), 493; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57050493 - 13 May 2021
Viewed by 1080
Abstract
The objective of this article was to conduct a systematic review of the literature to contrast the existing evidence regarding the relationship between periodontal disease (PD) and diabetes mellitus (DM) with the possibly increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, as well as to establish [...] Read more.
The objective of this article was to conduct a systematic review of the literature to contrast the existing evidence regarding the relationship between periodontal disease (PD) and diabetes mellitus (DM) with the possibly increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, as well as to establish a hypothesis that explains the ways in which this interaction could take place. A literature search up from 1 January 2020 to 21 March 2021 was conducted in three electronic databases, namely, PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus, in order to identify studies on periodontal disease alone or in conjunction with diabetes mellitus, reporting any relation with SARS-CoV-2 infection as a primary outcome. Only articles published in the English language were included. Due to the lack of studies, we decided to collect all the theoretical and clinical evidence suggesting a possible biological pathway evidencing the relationship among PD, DM, and SARS-CoV-2 infection. From a total of 29 articles, 12 were included for final review studies (five reviews, two hypotheses, one Special Issue, one perspective, one commentary, one case–control study, and one case report). In addition, this systematic review article hypothesizes the correlation between PD and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in periodontal tissue and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. T2DM is a metabolic disorder characterized by high blood glucose levels resulting from altered insulin secretion or action. Likewise, periodontitis and T2DM are inflammatory disorders with a bidirectional association, and both diseases have a similar immunomodulatory cascade and cytokine profile. ACE2 is a crucial component of the renin–angiotensin system (RAS) and the key factor of entry in the cells by the new SARS-CoV-2. ACE2 is widely distributed in the lung and kidneys, and interestingly has a great distribution in the oral cavity, principally in the tongue and periodontal tissue. ACE2 in periodontal tissue plays a crucial role between health and disease. Moreover, the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/MasR axis is downregulated in the dysbiotic and inflammatory periodontal environment. Nevertheless, the balance of ACE2 activity is modified in the context of concurrent diabetes, increasing the expression of ACE2 by the uncontrolled glycemia chronic in T2DM. Therefore, the uncontrolled hyperglycemia possibly increases the risk of developing periodontitis and triggering overexpression of ACE2 in periodontal tissue of T2DM patients, with these events potentially being essential to SARS-CoV-2 infection and the development of mild-to-severe form of COVID-19. In this sense, we would like to point out that the need for randomized controlled trials is imperative to support this association. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pandemic Outbreak of Coronavirus)
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Review
Toxic Metals and Non-Communicable Diseases in HIV Population: A Systematic Review
Medicina 2021, 57(5), 492; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57050492 - 13 May 2021
Viewed by 513
Abstract
Background and Objectives: HIV has been a serious global health concern since its discovery, with about 37.9 million people living with HIV worldwide as of 2018. Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) accounts for 68% of the infection and contributed 74% of the 1.5 million deaths [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: HIV has been a serious global health concern since its discovery, with about 37.9 million people living with HIV worldwide as of 2018. Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) accounts for 68% of the infection and contributed 74% of the 1.5 million deaths in 2013 despite having only 12% of the total world population residing in the region. This systematic review has attempted to determine the association between heavy metal toxicity and the occurrence of non-communicable diseases in the HIV/AIDS population. Materials and Methods: Three databases were systematically searched: PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar for studies written in English and published between 1 April 2000 and 12 April 2020. Studies were excluded if the main outcomes were not measured or did not meet the inclusion criteria. Results: All the six included studies are cross-sectional in design, and therefore were evaluated using the STROBE checklist. The data extraction was done using an extraction table; the ratio of female to male participants included in the study was 1.09:1. Qualitative analysis was used due to the heterogeneity in the heavy metal biomarkers and the outcome measured by the included studies. Two studies compared the concentration of heavy metals in HIV-positive and HIV-negative participants while one compared the levels between HAART-naïve and HAART-treated participants, and three determined the association between heavy metal toxicity and non-communicable diseases (liver fibrosis, anaemia, and reproductive parameters, respectively) in HIV-positive patients. Conclusions: Blood lead, cadmium, and mercury levels were higher in HIV-seropositive than -seronegative subjects, whereas serum zinc level was lower in HIV-seropositive than -seronegative subjects, but the causal association between heavy metals and non-communicable diseases in HIV subjects is largely unknown. Interdisciplinary research between nutrition, toxicology, and human health is envisaged for primary and secondary prevention and treatment. Full article
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Article
Effect of Microcurrent Stimulation on Pain, Shoulder Function, and Grip Strength in Early Post-Operative Phase after Rotator Cuff Repair
Medicina 2021, 57(5), 491; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57050491 - 13 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 568
Abstract
Background and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of microcurrent stimulation on pain, shoulder function, and grip strength in patients with rotator cuff repair. Materials and Methods: This randomized single-blind controlled trial was conducted on inpatients of [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of microcurrent stimulation on pain, shoulder function, and grip strength in patients with rotator cuff repair. Materials and Methods: This randomized single-blind controlled trial was conducted on inpatients of the rehabilitation department, and included 28 patients who underwent rotator cuff repair. Participants were randomly assigned to the experimental group (n = 14), treated with microcurrent stimulation, and the control group (n = 14), treated with false microcurrent stimulation. The microcurrent stimulation administered to the experimental group underwent general physical therapy and microcurrent stimulation three times a week for 4 weeks. Results: Changes in pain, range of motion in shoulder, simple shoulder test, and grip strength were assessed before and after the intervention. Both groups showed a significant decrease in pain and shoulder function (t = 27.412, 22.079, 19.079, and 18.561; p < 0.001), and grip strength showed a significant increase (t = −8.251 and −9.946; p < 0.001). The experimental group that underwent microcurrent stimulation exhibited a significant effect on pain, shoulder function, and grip strength compared with the control group that underwent false microcurrent stimulation (t = −2.17, −2.22, and 2.213; p = 0.039, 0.035, and 0.036). Conclusions: This study confirmed that microcurrent stimulation is effective for the treatment of rotator cuff repair patients. Full article
Case Report
Acute Pericarditis after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A Case Report
Medicina 2021, 57(5), 490; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57050490 - 13 May 2021
Viewed by 483
Abstract
Background: Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is known as a very rare possible trigger of pericarditis. Most frequently it develops after a latent period or early in the case of periprocedural complications. In this report, we present an atypical early onset of pericarditis after [...] Read more.
Background: Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is known as a very rare possible trigger of pericarditis. Most frequently it develops after a latent period or early in the case of periprocedural complications. In this report, we present an atypical early onset of pericarditis after an uncomplicated PCI. Case Summary: A 58-year-old man was admitted to the hospital for PCI of the chronic total occlusion of the left anterior descending (LAD) artery. An initial electrocardiogram (ECG) was unremarkable. The PCI attempt was unsuccessful. There were no procedure-related complications observed at the end of the PCI attempt and the patient was symptom free. Six hours after the interventional procedure, the patient complained of severe chest pain. The ECG demonstrated ST-segment elevation in anterior and lateral leads. Troponin I was mildly elevated but a coronary angiogram did not reveal the impairment of collateral blood flow to the LAD territory. Due to pericarditic chest pain, typical ECG findings and pericardial effusion with elevated C-reactive protein, the diagnosis of acute pericarditis was established, and a course of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) was initiated. Chest pain was relieved and ST-segment elevation almost completely returned to baseline after three days of treatment. The patient was discharged in stable condition without chest pain on the fourth day after symptom onset. Conclusions: Acute pericarditis is a rare complication of PCI. Despite the lack of specific clinical manifestation, post-traumatic pericarditis should be considered in patients with symptoms and signs of pericarditis and a prior history of iatrogenic injury or thoracic trauma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cardiology)
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Article
Comparison of Emotional Dysregulation Features in Cyclothymia and Adult ADHD
Medicina 2021, 57(5), 489; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57050489 - 12 May 2021
Viewed by 539
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Emotional dysregulation is central to the problem of the overlap between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and cyclothymia. The aim of the study was to evaluate comorbidity rates between ADHD and cyclothymic disorder and to explore demographic and clinical differences among [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Emotional dysregulation is central to the problem of the overlap between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and cyclothymia. The aim of the study was to evaluate comorbidity rates between ADHD and cyclothymic disorder and to explore demographic and clinical differences among the groups, focusing on affective temperament and emotional dysregulation. Materials and Methods: One hundred sixty-five outpatients attending the Second Psychiatry Unit at the Santa Chiara University Hospital (Pisa) were consecutively recruited: 80 were diagnosed with ADHD, 60 with cyclothymic disorder, and 25 with both conditions. Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego (TEMPS-M) and the 40-item version of Reactivity, Intensity, Polarity, and Stability questionnaire (RI-PoSt-40) were administered. Results: Cyclothymic patients were more frequently female and older with respect to the ADHD groups. Both comorbid and non-comorbid ADHD patients showed significantly lower educational attainment and more frequently had substance use disorders. Panic disorder was common in non-comorbid cyclothymic patients, who showed significantly higher rates of familial panic disorder, major depressive disorder and suicide attempts in comparison with patients only diagnosed with ADHD. Cyclothymic patients without ADHD were also characterized by fewer hyperthymic temperamental traits, higher depressive and anxious dispositions, and a greater negative emotionality. No significant differences among groups were observed for cyclothymic temperament and overall negative emotional dysregulation, but comorbid patients with both conditions scored the highest in these subscales. This group also showed significantly higher affective instability with respect to ADHD patients without cyclothymia and was less frequently diagnosed with bipolar disorder type II than patients from both the other groups. Conclusions: ADHD and cyclothymia often co-occur and show similar levels of emotional dysregulation. However, cyclothymic patients may be more prone to negative emotionality in clinical settings. Subjects with “sunny” cyclothymic features might escape the attention of clinicians unless ADHD is present. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bipolar Disorder – New Opportunities and Challenges)
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Review
Diagnosis of Cardiac Abnormalities in Muscular Dystrophies
Medicina 2021, 57(5), 488; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57050488 - 12 May 2021
Viewed by 402
Abstract
Muscular disorders are mainly characterized by progressive skeletal muscle weakness. There are several aspects that can be monitored, which are used to differentiate between the types of muscular disorders, ranging from the targeted muscle up to the mutated gene. An aspect that holds [...] Read more.
Muscular disorders are mainly characterized by progressive skeletal muscle weakness. There are several aspects that can be monitored, which are used to differentiate between the types of muscular disorders, ranging from the targeted muscle up to the mutated gene. An aspect that holds critical importance when managing muscular dystrophies is that most of them exhibit cardiac abnormalities. Therefore, cardiac imaging is an essential part of muscular disorder monitoring and management. In the first section of the review, several cardiac abnormalities are introduced; afterward, different muscular dystrophies’ pathogenesis is presented. Not all muscular dystrophies necessarily present cardiac involvement; however, the ones that do are linked with the cardiac abnormalities described in the first section. Moreover, studies from the last 3 years on muscular disorders are presented alongside imaging techniques used to determine cardiac abnormalities. Full article
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Case Report
Variant Arterial Supply of the Descending Colon by the Coeliac Trunk: A Case Report
Medicina 2021, 57(5), 487; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57050487 - 12 May 2021
Viewed by 378
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Knowledge of arterial variations of the intestines is of great importance in visceral surgery and interventional radiology. Materials and Methods: An unusual variation in the blood supply of the descending colon was observed in a Caucasian female body [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Knowledge of arterial variations of the intestines is of great importance in visceral surgery and interventional radiology. Materials and Methods: An unusual variation in the blood supply of the descending colon was observed in a Caucasian female body donor. Results: In this case, the left colic artery that regularly derives from the inferior mesenteric artery supplying the descending colon was instead a branch of the common hepatic artery. Conclusions: Here, we describe the very rare case of an aberrant left colic artery arising from the common hepatic artery in a dissection study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Topographic Anatomy of the Human Body)
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Case Report
Leriche Syndrome Misdiagnosed as Complex Regional Pain Syndrome in a Patient with Neuropathic Pain Caused by a Chip Fracture: A Case Report
Medicina 2021, 57(5), 486; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57050486 - 12 May 2021
Viewed by 533
Abstract
Introduction: Leriche syndrome is an aortoiliac occlusive disease caused by atherosclerotic occlusion. We report a case of Leriche syndrome with a fracture that was suspected as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), as the post-traumatic pain gradually worsened in the form of excruciating neuropathic [...] Read more.
Introduction: Leriche syndrome is an aortoiliac occlusive disease caused by atherosclerotic occlusion. We report a case of Leriche syndrome with a fracture that was suspected as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), as the post-traumatic pain gradually worsened in the form of excruciating neuropathic pain. Case Report: A 52-year-old woman with a history of hypertension was referred to the Department of Pain Medicine from a local orthopedic clinic because of suspected CRPS for excruciating neuropathic pain for one month. She complained of gait dysfunction and severe pain in the right foot following an incident of trauma with the right first toe. The average pain intensity assessed using the visual analog scale (VAS) was 90 (0: no pain, 100: the worst pain imaginable), and the neuropathic pain was evident as a score of 6/10 on Douleur neuropathique 4. Allodynia, hyperalgesia, blue discoloration of the skin, asymmetric temperature change (1.38 °C), and edematous soft tissue changes were observed. Ultrasonography showed a chip fracture in the first distal phalanx of the right first toe. The diagnosis was most probably CRPS type I according to the Budapest research criteria for CRPS. However, multiple pain management techniques were insufficient in controlling the symptoms. A month and a half later, an ankle-brachial index score of less than 0.4 suggested severe peripheral artery disease. Computed tomography angiography showed total occlusion between the infrarenal abdominal aorta and the bilateral common iliac arteries. Therefore, she underwent aortic-bifemoral bypass surgery with a diagnosis of Leriche syndrome. Three months after the surgery, the average pain intensity was graded as 10 on the VAS (0–100), the color of the skin of the right first toe improved and no gait dysfunction was observed. Conclusion: A chip fracture in a region with insufficient blood flow could manifest as excruciating neuropathic pain in Leriche syndrome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Perioperative Medicine of Anesthesia and Pain Medicine)
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Article
Tart Cherry (Fruit of Prunus cerasus) Concentrated Powder (TCcp) Ameliorates Glucocorticoid-Induced Muscular Atrophy in Mice
Medicina 2021, 57(5), 485; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57050485 - 12 May 2021
Viewed by 408
Abstract
Background and Objectives: The present study investigated the beneficial effects of tart cherry (fruit of Prunus cerasus) concentrated powder (TCcp) on glucocorticoid (GLU)-induced catabolic muscular atrophy in the skeletal muscle of mice. Furthermore, its potential mechanism was also studied. Materials and [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The present study investigated the beneficial effects of tart cherry (fruit of Prunus cerasus) concentrated powder (TCcp) on glucocorticoid (GLU)-induced catabolic muscular atrophy in the skeletal muscle of mice. Furthermore, its potential mechanism was also studied. Materials and Methods: Changes in calf thickness, calf muscle weight, calf muscle strength, body weight, gastrocnemius muscle histology, immunohistochemistry, serum creatinine, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and antioxidant defense systems were measured. Malondialdehyde, reactive oxygen species, glutathione content, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities in the gastrocnemius muscle, and muscle-specific mRNA expressions were evaluated. Results: After 24 days, GLU control mice showed muscular atrophy at all criteria of indexes. The muscular atrophy symptoms were significantly inhibited by oral treatment with 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg of TCcp through antioxidative and anti-inflammatory modulated expression of genes involved in muscle protein degradation (myostatin, atrogin-1, SIRT1, and MuRF1) and synthesis (A1R, Akt1, TRPV4, and PI3K). Conclusions: This study shows that the TCcp (500 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg) could improve muscular atrophies caused by various etiologies. Full article
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Article
Smoking in Teenagers from the Social Protection System—What Do We Know about It?
Medicina 2021, 57(5), 484; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57050484 - 12 May 2021
Viewed by 442
Abstract
Background and Objectives: The impact of smoking on the young population is an extremely important issue for the public health system. As the prevalence of smoking is considerably increasing amongst the pubescent and adolescent population, the prevention of smoking at this age [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The impact of smoking on the young population is an extremely important issue for the public health system. As the prevalence of smoking is considerably increasing amongst the pubescent and adolescent population, the prevention of smoking at this age should be considered of high priority. The primary aim of this observational study was to assess tobacco use in teenagers included in the social protection system. Materials and Methods: 275 foster care teenagers (155 from the Professional Maternal Assistance System (AMP) and 120 from the residential system) from two different counties were enrolled. After a brief interactive session focused on the main consequences of smoking, a self-administered questionnaire was anonymously completed. Results: The mean age of the study group was 14 years, with a significant difference between the residential system and AMP (p = 0.001). Smoking status was significantly higher in participants from family-type houses (36.7%) than in those from the AMP (11.7%) (p < 0.001). The presence of smokers in the family (78.3%) and passive smoking (64.7%) were significantly higher in children from the residential system than in those from the AMP (32.9% and 31.8%, respectively) (p < 0.001). The number of cigarettes consumed daily was associated with the age of the participants (p = 0.01, rho 0.42). In total, 82.3% were cigarette users and 19.4% were e-cigarette users. Smokers bought the majority of their cigarettes from the store (63.2%) or asked a friend (19.3%) or an adult to buy them on their behalf (12.3%). Conclusions: The null hypothesis, according to which children who are abandoned but raised and cared for by professional nursing assistants are predisposed to earlier tobacco activity compared to children raised in a normal familiar environment, is supported. Future education and prevention campaigns conveying the benefits of a healthy long-term lifestyle to this population category are needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco, Nicotine and Health)
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Review
Heterotopic Quadruplet Pregnancy. Literature Review and Case Report
Medicina 2021, 57(5), 483; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57050483 - 12 May 2021
Viewed by 416
Abstract
Heterotopic pregnancy is the condition where both intrauterine and ectopic pregnancy are present. It rarely occurs after natural conception, but is more common with assisted reproductive techniques, when more than one embryo is transferred. Quadruplet heterotopic pregnancy is exceedingly rare. Methods: A literature [...] Read more.
Heterotopic pregnancy is the condition where both intrauterine and ectopic pregnancy are present. It rarely occurs after natural conception, but is more common with assisted reproductive techniques, when more than one embryo is transferred. Quadruplet heterotopic pregnancy is exceedingly rare. Methods: A literature review was conducted aiming to highlight the diagnosis difficulties and the management options in heterotopic quadruplet pregnancies. Results: Nine relevant studies were identified by researching PubMed up to 2021 for “heterotopic quadruplet pregnancy”, “quadruplet intrauterine and ectopic pregnancy”, “synchronous intrauterine and ectopic pregnancy”. Conclusions: In this paper, we present a case of heterotopic quadruplet pregnancy and address the difficulty in diagnosing this condition and make formal recommendations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Prenatal Medicine: Research and Care)
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