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Old Age Bipolar Disorder—Epidemiology, Aetiology and Treatment

The Challenges of Children with Bipolar Disorder

by 1,2,* and 3,4
School of Medicine, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052, USA
Bipolar Collaborative Network, 5415 W. Cedar Lane, Suite 201-B, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA
Psychiatrie Schwäbisch Hall, Campus ZfPG, 74523 Schwäbisch Hall, Germany
Campus Nuremberg-Nord, Paracelsus Medical University, 90419 Nuremberg, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Mirko Manchia
Received: 30 April 2021 / Revised: 8 June 2021 / Accepted: 9 June 2021 / Published: 11 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management of Bipolar Disorder)
Childhood onset bipolar disorder (CO-BD) presents a panoply of difficulties associated with early recognition and treatment. CO-BD is associated with a variety of precursors and comorbidities that have been inadequately studied, so treatment remains obscure. The earlier the onset, the longer is the delay to first treatment, and both early onset and treatment delay are associated with more depressive episodes and a poor prognosis in adulthood. Ultra-rapid and ultradian cycling, consistent with a diagnosis of BP-NOS, are highly prevalent in the youngest children and take long periods of time and complex treatment regimens to achieve euthymia. Lithium and atypical antipsychotics are effective in mania, but treatment of depression remains obscure, with the exception of lurasidone, for children ages 10-17. Treatment of the common comorbid anxiety disorders, oppositional defiant disorders, pathological habits, and substance abuse are all poorly studied and are off-label. Cognitive dysfunction after a first manic hospitalization improves over the next year only on the condition that no further episodes occur. Yet comprehensive expert treatment after an initial manic hospitalization results in many fewer relapses than traditional treatment as usual, emphasizing the need for combined pharmacological, psychosocial, and psycho-educational approaches to this difficult and highly recurrent illness. View Full-Text
Keywords: anticonvulsants; antipsychotics; bipolar disorder; children; early recognition; family focused therapy; lithium anticonvulsants; antipsychotics; bipolar disorder; children; early recognition; family focused therapy; lithium
MDPI and ACS Style

Post, R.M.; Grunze, H. The Challenges of Children with Bipolar Disorder. Medicina 2021, 57, 601.

AMA Style

Post RM, Grunze H. The Challenges of Children with Bipolar Disorder. Medicina. 2021; 57(6):601.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Post, Robert M., and Heinz Grunze. 2021. "The Challenges of Children with Bipolar Disorder" Medicina 57, no. 6: 601.

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