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Review

NOX2 Activation in COVID-19: Possible Implications for Neurodegenerative Diseases

IRCCS Centro Neurolesi “Bonino-Pulejo”, Via Provinciale Palermo, Contrada Casazza, 98124 Messina, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally as the first author.
Academic Editor: Stefano Aquaro
Received: 9 May 2021 / Revised: 4 June 2021 / Accepted: 9 June 2021 / Published: 11 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pandemic Outbreak of Coronavirus)
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a rapidly spreading contagious infectious disease caused by the pathogen severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), that primarily affects the respiratory tract as well as the central nervous system (CNS). SARS-CoV-2 infection occurs through the interaction of the viral protein Spike with the angiotensin II receptor (ACE 2), leading to an increase of angiotensin II and activation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase2 (NOX2), resulting in the release of both reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory molecules. The purpose of the review is to explain that SARS-CoV-2 infection can determine neuroinflammation that induces NOX2 activation in microglia. To better understand the role of NOX2 in inflammation, an overview of its involvement in neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) such as Parkinson’s disease (PD), Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is provided. To write this manuscript, we performed a PubMed search to evaluate the possible relationship of SARS-CoV-2 infection in NOX2 activation in microglia, as well as the role of NOX2 in NDs. Several studies highlighted that NOX2 activation in microglia amplifies neuroinflammation. To date, there is no clinical treatment capable of counteracting its activation, however, NOX2 could be a promising pharmaceutical target useful for both the treatment and prevention of NDs and COVID-19 treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; NOX2; neurodegenerative disease; oxidative stress; central nervous system COVID-19; NOX2; neurodegenerative disease; oxidative stress; central nervous system
MDPI and ACS Style

Sindona, C.; Schepici, G.; Contestabile, V.; Bramanti, P.; Mazzon, E. NOX2 Activation in COVID-19: Possible Implications for Neurodegenerative Diseases. Medicina 2021, 57, 604. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57060604

AMA Style

Sindona C, Schepici G, Contestabile V, Bramanti P, Mazzon E. NOX2 Activation in COVID-19: Possible Implications for Neurodegenerative Diseases. Medicina. 2021; 57(6):604. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57060604

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sindona, Cinzia, Giovanni Schepici, Valentina Contestabile, Placido Bramanti, and Emanuela Mazzon. 2021. "NOX2 Activation in COVID-19: Possible Implications for Neurodegenerative Diseases" Medicina 57, no. 6: 604. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57060604

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