Background and Objectives:
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a condition that affects as much as 10.9% of the population and, along with presence of nasal polyps, is associated with significant morbidity and decreased quality of life. Studies on molecular pathways that have been activated in nasal polyp tissue are mainly based on cytokine concentration detection. Therefore, our aim is to investigate the complex appearance, relative distribution and interlinks of IL-1, IL-4, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 and Ki 67 in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) affected human nasal mucosa. Materials and Methods
: Samples of nasal polyps were obtained from 12 patients with previously diagnosed CRSwNP and no prior surgery. Control group consisted of samples from 17 otherwise healthy individuals with isolated nasal septum deviation. Tissues were stained for IL-1, IL-4, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 and Ki67 immunohistochemically. Non-parametric statistic, Mann–Whitney U test and Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient were used. Results
: All factors, except connective tissue cytokine IL-10 and proliferation marker Ki-67, had increased presence in connective tissue and decreased presence in epithelium of nasal polyps when compared to controls. Very strong and strong positive correlations between factors were observed. Conclusions
: Decreased appearance of IL-1α, IL-4, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 positive structures in the nasal epithelium with selective increase of IL-1α and IL-12 in nasal subepithelial connective tissue characterize the cytokine endotype with dysfunctional epithelial barrier and local stimulation of immune response in the connective tissue in case of chronic rhinosinusitis with polyps. Decrease of IL-6 in both—epithelium and connective tissue with strong correlation between it and IL-7 and IL-10 in connective tissue suggests significant stimulation of this regulatory cytokine and, possibly, the important role in pathogenesis of the development in nasal polyps. Correlations between Ki67 and cytokines indicate possible involvement of IL-4, IL-7 and IL-12 in regulation of cellular proliferation.
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