The aim of the present study was to report two cases of refractory dry eye syndrome (DES) after transconjunctival excision of the palpebral lobe of the lacrimal gland. A 25-year-old female patient with a chief complaint of a palpable mass in both upper eyelids visited our medical center. Preoperative orbital computer tomography showed high-attenuation lesions in both lacrimal glands. Incisional biopsy of the lacrimal gland palpebral lobe via transconjunctival incision was performed in January 2019. At 1 month after the biopsy, a lack of tears and persistent corneal erosions were found in both eyes. Artificial tears, punctal occlusion, autologous serum eye drops, and therapeutic contact lenses were applied in an attempt to control the dry eye symptoms. The patient continues to suffer from intractable DES at 2.5 years after the procedure. The second case involved a 52-year-old female patient who visited our medical center with a chief complaint of a palpable mass in both upper eyelids. Bilateral orbital tumors were diagnosed with preoperative magnetic resonance imaging. An incisional biopsy of the lacrimal gland was performed. Immunoglobulin G4-related dacryoadenitis was confirmed through lacrimal palpebral lobe incisional biopsy. Intractable DES and corneal erosion of her left eye persisted thereafter. A transconjunctival incision is an effective approach for minimizing postoperative scars and is suitable for the biopsy of tumors that are visible through the conjunctiva. After a biopsy of the palpebral lobe of the main lacrimal glands, the secretion of reflex tears decreases due to damage to the secreting ducts of the main lacrimal glands. However, total tear secretion can be maintained by basal tear secretion from the accessory lacrimal glands. In this report, we describe two cases of refractory DES due to decreased total tear secretion, although only the palpebral lobes of the main lacrimal glands were biopsied.
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