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Review

TGF-β Physiology as a Novel Therapeutic Target Regarding Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases: Where Do We Stand and What to Expect

1
Endocrine Unit, Aretaieion Hospital, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Vasilissis Sofias Str. 76, 11528 Athens, Greece
2
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4301 W. Markham St., Little Rock, AR 72501, USA
3
Unit of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, 3rd Department of Pediatrics, Aristotle University School of Health Sciences, Hippokration Hospital of Thessaloniki, Konstantinoupoleos Str. 49, 54642 Thessaloniki, Greece
4
Assisted Reproduction Unit, Second Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Aretaieion Hospital, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Vasilissis Sofias Str. 76, 11528 Athens, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Stephen Usala
Received: 21 May 2021 / Accepted: 7 June 2021 / Published: 14 June 2021
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), as a master regulator of immune response, is deeply implicated in the complex pathophysiology and development of autoimmune thyroid diseases. Based on the close interplay between thyroid autoimmunity and TGF-β, scientific interest was shifted to the understanding of the possible role of this molecule regarding the diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy of these diseases. The main aim of this review is to present research data about possible treatment options based on the role of TGF-β in thyroid autoimmunity. Suggested TGF-β-mediated therapeutic strategies regarding autoimmune thyroid diseases include either the enhancement of its immunosuppressive role or inhibition of its facilitatory role in thyroid autoimmunity. For example, the application of hr-TGF-β can be used to bolster the inhibitory role of TGF-β regarding the development of thyroid diseases, whereas anti-TGF-β antibodies and similar molecules could impede its immune-promoting effects by blocking different levels of TGF-β biosynthesis and activation pathways. In conclusion, TGF-β could evolve to a promising, novel therapeutic tool for thyroid autoimmunity. View Full-Text
Keywords: thyroid gland; TGF-β; immune cells; autoimmune thyroid diseases; thyroiditis; pregnancy; therapy thyroid gland; TGF-β; immune cells; autoimmune thyroid diseases; thyroiditis; pregnancy; therapy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kardalas, E.; Maraka, S.; Papagianni, M.; Paltoglou, G.; Siristatidis, C.; Mastorakos, G. TGF-β Physiology as a Novel Therapeutic Target Regarding Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases: Where Do We Stand and What to Expect. Medicina 2021, 57, 621. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57060621

AMA Style

Kardalas E, Maraka S, Papagianni M, Paltoglou G, Siristatidis C, Mastorakos G. TGF-β Physiology as a Novel Therapeutic Target Regarding Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases: Where Do We Stand and What to Expect. Medicina. 2021; 57(6):621. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57060621

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kardalas, Efstratios, Spyridoula Maraka, Maria Papagianni, George Paltoglou, Charalampos Siristatidis, and George Mastorakos. 2021. "TGF-β Physiology as a Novel Therapeutic Target Regarding Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases: Where Do We Stand and What to Expect" Medicina 57, no. 6: 621. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57060621

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