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Medicina, Volume 58, Issue 5 (May 2022) – 134 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Evidence suggests that different disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) exert antihyperglycemic properties by virtue of their anti-inflammatory, insulin-sensitizing, and/or insulinotropic effects. In this regard, DMARDs can be regarded as promising drug candidates that may potentially reduce rheumatic disease activity, ameliorate glucose control, and prevent the development of diabetes-associated cardiovascular complications and metabolic dysfunctions in patients with chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases and comorbid type 2 diabetes. View this paper
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Review
Approach to Thrombophilia in Pregnancy—A Narrative Review
Medicina 2022, 58(5), 692; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58050692 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 456
Abstract
Thrombophilia is a genetic predisposition to hypercoagulable states caused by acquired haemostasis conditions; pregnancy causes the haemostatic system to become hypercoagulable, which grows throughout the pregnancy and peaks around delivery. Genetic testing for thrombophilic gene mutations is evaluated using different methodologies of real-time [...] Read more.
Thrombophilia is a genetic predisposition to hypercoagulable states caused by acquired haemostasis conditions; pregnancy causes the haemostatic system to become hypercoagulable, which grows throughout the pregnancy and peaks around delivery. Genetic testing for thrombophilic gene mutations is evaluated using different methodologies of real-time polymerase chain reaction and DNA microarrays of specific genes. Adapting the general care of the pregnant woman to the particularities caused by thrombophilia is an important component, so screening is preferred to assess the degree of genetic damage that manifests itself as a risk of thrombosis. The major goal of this narrative review was to quantitatively evaluate the literature data on the specific care of pregnant women with thrombophilia that are at risk of developing unplanned miscarriages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Management of Diseases during Pregnancy)
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Case Report
Cutaneous Ulcer Caused by Apixaban Treatment Is Resolved after Replacement with Dabigatran
Medicina 2022, 58(5), 691; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina58050691 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 421
Abstract
Nowadays, novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) have shown improved safety profile and efficacy compared to vitamin K antagonists in the prevention of thromboembolic events occurring during different pathological conditions. However, there are concerns and safety issues, mostly related to adverse events following interactions with [...] Read more.
Nowadays, novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) have shown improved safety profile and efficacy compared to vitamin K antagonists in the prevention of thromboembolic events occurring during different pathological conditions. However, there are concerns and safety issues, mostly related to adverse events following interactions with other drugs, in real-world practice. We report the case of an 83-year-old woman who developed a non-bleeding leg ulcer not caused by trauma or other evident pathological conditions after 10 days of treatment with apixaban 5 mg/q.d. She was switched from apixaban to dabigatran and the leg ulcer rapidly improved and completely cicatrized in 40 days. The resolution of the ulcer and the toleration of dabigatran therapy suggest an apixaban-specific reaction; however, the pathological mechanism of ulcer onset is currently unclear. Careful evaluation of hospital databases of Molise region (Southern Italy) hospitals identified two similar cases between 2019 and 2021. These cases underline the necessity of careful post-marketing surveillance, considering the rapidly increasing number of patients treated with NOACs and patient’s risk factors such as old age, high polypharmacy rate, co-morbidities, and peculiar genetic background related to NOACs pharmacokinetic features. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry and Pharmacology)
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Article
Comparison of Core Body Temperatures in Patients Administered Remimazolam or Propofol during Robotic-Assisted and Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy
Medicina 2022, 58(5), 690; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina58050690 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 636
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Different types of anesthetics affect thermoregulatory mechanisms, such as the redistribution of body temperature, loss of skin heat, or inhibition of thermoregulatory vasoconstriction. Therefore, we compared remimazolam with propofol in terms of core body temperature in patients undergoing robotic-assisted and [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Different types of anesthetics affect thermoregulatory mechanisms, such as the redistribution of body temperature, loss of skin heat, or inhibition of thermoregulatory vasoconstriction. Therefore, we compared remimazolam with propofol in terms of core body temperature in patients undergoing robotic-assisted and laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. Materials and methods: Ninety patients were randomly assigned to either the propofol–remifentanil (PR) group or the remimazolam–remifentanil (RR) group. The PR group (n = 45) received effect-site concentrations of 6.0 μg/mL of propofol and 4 ng/mL of remifentanil, followed by 0.9 mg/kg of 1% rocuronium and maintenance with effect-site concentrations of 2–4 μg/mL of propofol and 3 ng/mL of remifentanil. The RR group (n = 45) received remimazolam 6 mg/kg/h by continuous intravenous infusion and the effect-site concentration of 4 ng/mL of remifentanil, followed by 0.9 mg/kg of 1% rocuronium, remimazolam 1–3 mg/kg/h, and remifentanil 3 ng/mL. The primary outcome was core body temperature, and secondary outcomes included vasoconstriction threshold (°C) and time to onset of vasoconstriction (min). Results: The core body temperature in the RR group was significantly higher at 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, and 180 min after induction than in the PR group (p < 0.01). The vasoconstriction threshold was significantly higher in the RR group (35.2 ± 0.4) than in the PR group (34.8 ± 0.3) (p < 0.01). The time to onset of vasoconstriction was significantly less in the RR group (150.5 ± 10.2) than in the PR group (158.5 ± 8.4) (p < 0.01). However, the incidence of intraoperative hypothermia was not significant between two groups. Conclusions: Remimazolam appears to reduce vasoconstriction threshold less than and had a faster onset of vasoconstriction, resulting in superior thermoregulatory control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nephrology)
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Case Report
Cataract Surgery after Radial Keratotomy with Non-Diffractive Extended Depth of Focus Lens Implantation
Medicina 2022, 58(5), 689; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina58050689 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 567
Abstract
Radial keratotomy was a popular surgical procedure used to treat myopia. Patients who underwent radial keratotomy several years ago, are currently reporting to the ophthalmologist due to worsening of vision associated with age-related cataracts. In this case report we present a case of [...] Read more.
Radial keratotomy was a popular surgical procedure used to treat myopia. Patients who underwent radial keratotomy several years ago, are currently reporting to the ophthalmologist due to worsening of vision associated with age-related cataracts. In this case report we present a case of a 60-year-old woman who underwent radial keratotomy with 16 incisions in the right eye and 12 incisions in the left eye. The patient reported to an ophthalmologist due to a deterioration of vision caused by a cataract. We described, in detail, the difficulties encountered during the diagnostic procedures, differences in the calculation of intraocular lens, and intraoperative difficulties as compared to patients who had not undergone radial keratotomy. We also present the obtained postoperative results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Latest Advances in Cornea and Lens-Based Surgery)
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Article
Prevention of Compression Fracture in Osteoporosis Patients under Minimally Invasive Trans-Foraminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion with Assistance of Bone-Mounted Robotic System in Two-Level Degenerative Lumbar Disease
Medicina 2022, 58(5), 688; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina58050688 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 564
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Minimally invasive spine surgery reduces destruction of the paraspinal musculature and improves spinal stability. Nevertheless, screw loosening remains a challenging issue in osteoporosis patients receiving spinal fixation and fusion surgery. Moreover, adjacent vertebral compression fracture is a major complication, particularly [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Minimally invasive spine surgery reduces destruction of the paraspinal musculature and improves spinal stability. Nevertheless, screw loosening remains a challenging issue in osteoporosis patients receiving spinal fixation and fusion surgery. Moreover, adjacent vertebral compression fracture is a major complication, particularly in patients with osteoporosis. We assessed long-term imaging results to investigate the outcomes of osteoporosis patients with two-level degenerative spine disease receiving minimally invasive surgery with the assistance of a robotic system. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed consecutive osteoporosis patients who underwent minimally invasive surgery with the assistance of a robotic system at our institution during 2013–2016. All patients were diagnosed with osteoporosis according to the World Health Organization criteria. All patients were diagnosed with two levels of spinal degenerative disease, including L34, L45, or L5S1. The study endpoints included screw-loosening condition, cage fusion, and vertebral body heights of the adjacent, first fixation segment, and second fixation segments before and after surgery, including the anterior, middle, and posterior third parts of the vertebral body. Differences in vertebral body heights before and after surgery were evaluated using the F-test. Results: Nineteen consecutive osteoporosis patients were analyzed. A lower rate of screw loosening was observed in osteoporosis patients in our study. There were no significant differences between the preoperative and postoperative vertebral body heights, including adjacent and fixation segments. Conclusions: According to our retrospective study, we report that minimally invasive surgery with the assistance of a robotic system provided better screw fixation, a lower rate of screw loosening, and a lesser extent of vertebral compression fracture after spinal fixation and fusion surgery in osteoporosis patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Treatment of Spine and Pelvic Fractures in Patients with Osteoporosis)
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Article
Surgical Outcomes of Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Connection Repair
Medicina 2022, 58(5), 687; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina58050687 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 453
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Over the years, surgical repair of total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) outcomes have improved, however, morbidity and mortality still remain significant. This study aims to assess the early and long-term outcomes of surgical treatment of TAPVC children, operated on [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Over the years, surgical repair of total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) outcomes have improved, however, morbidity and mortality still remain significant. This study aims to assess the early and long-term outcomes of surgical treatment of TAPVC children, operated on between 2006 and 2016, in one pediatric center in Poland. Materials and Methods: Diagnostics, surgical treatment, and follow-up data from 83 patients were collected. In addition, survival and risk factor analyses, control echocardiographic, and electrocardiographic examinations were performed. Results: In the analyzed group (n = 83), there were seven hospital deaths (within 30 days after the operation) (8.4%) and nine late deaths (10.8%). The mean follow-up time was 5.5 years, and, for patients who survived, it was 7.1 years. The mean survival time in patients with completed follow-up (n = 70) was 10.3 years; the overall five-year survival rate was 78.4%. Independent mortality risk factors were type I TAPVC, single ventricle physiology, time from admission to operation, intensive care unit stay, postoperative hospital stay, and temporary kidney insufficiency requiring dialysis. Conclusions: The presence of single ventricle physiology and the supracardiac subtype of TAPVC might be negative prognostic factors, while normal heart physiology presents with good post-repair results. This study indicates that cardiac arrhythmias may occur. Morbidity and mortality, related to surgical TAPVC correction, still remain significant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Intensive Care/ Anesthesiology)
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Article
Managing of Migraine in the Workplaces: Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Italian Occupational Physicians
Medicina 2022, 58(5), 686; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina58050686 - 22 May 2022
Viewed by 494
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Migraine is a debilitating disorder, whose incidence peak in the age group of 30–39 years overlaps with the peak of employment years, potentially representing a significant issue for occupational physicians (OP). The present study was performed in order to [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Migraine is a debilitating disorder, whose incidence peak in the age group of 30–39 years overlaps with the peak of employment years, potentially representing a significant issue for occupational physicians (OP). The present study was performed in order to characterize their knowledge, attitudes and practices on migraine in the workplaces. Materials and Methods: A convenience sample of 242 Italian OP (mean age 47.8 ± 8.8 years, males 67.4%) participated in an internet-based survey by completing a structured questionnaire. Results: Adequate general knowledge of migraine was found in the majority of participants. Migraine was identified as a common and severe disorder by the majority of respondents (54.0% and 60.0%). Overall, 61.2% of participants acknowledged migraine as difficult to manage in the workplace, a status that made it more likely for OP understanding its potential frequency (Odds Ratio [OR] 3.672, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.526–8.831), or reported previous managing of complicated cases requiring conditional fitness to work judgement (OR 4.761, 95%CI 1.781–2.726). Moreover, professionals with a qualification in occupational medicine (OR 20.326, 95%CI 2.642–156.358), acknowledging the difficult managing of migraine in the workplaces (OR 2.715, 95%CI 1.034–7.128) and having received any request of medical surveillance for migraine (OR 22.878, 95%CI 4.816–108.683), were more likely to recommend specific requirements for migraineur workers. Conclusions: Migraine was recognized as a common disorder, but also as a challenging clinical problem for OP. Participating OP exhibited a substantial understanding of migraine and its triggers, but residual false beliefs and common misunderstanding may impair the proper management of this disorder, requiring improved and specifically targeted interventions. Full article
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Brief Report
Lung Fluid Volume during Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing
Medicina 2022, 58(5), 685; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina58050685 - 22 May 2022
Viewed by 369
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing can be used to quantify exercise capacity in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HfrEF). Lung fluid levels as measured non-invasively by remote dielectric sensing (ReDSTM), often correlate with intracardiac filling pressures. The [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing can be used to quantify exercise capacity in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HfrEF). Lung fluid levels as measured non-invasively by remote dielectric sensing (ReDSTM), often correlate with intracardiac filling pressures. The change in lung fluid levels in patients with HfrEF during cardiopulmonary exercise testing is unknown. Materials and Methods: Patients with chronic HfrEF who underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing between October 2021 and March 2022 were prospectively included in this proof-of-concept study, with ReDS values measured before and after testing. Results: Thirteen patients (median age 41 (37, 52) years, 69% men, plasma B-type natriuretic peptide 141 (57, 368) pg/mL) were included. Median peak oxygen consumption was 11.4 (10.7, 14.0) mL/kg/min. During the test, ReDS values increased from 25% to 32% only in one patient on inotropic support, whereas ReDS values remained unchanged in the other 12 patients. The former patient remained hospitalized, whereas the other patients were dischargeable without any new incidence of clinical events during the observational period (median duration 69 (33, 112] days). Conclusions: The ReDS system may be a feasible complementary tool to noninvasively assess the changes in lung fluid levels during cardiopulmonary exercise testing. The clinical implications of ReDS values during exercise needs further investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cardiology)
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Article
Craniovertebral and Craniomandibular Changes in Patients with Temporomandibular Joint Disorders after Physiotherapy Combined with Occlusal Splint Therapy: A Prospective Case Control Study
Medicina 2022, 58(5), 684; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina58050684 - 21 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 592
Abstract
Background and Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess the craniovertebral and craniomandibular changes in patients diagnosed with temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD) after physiotherapy combined with occlusal splint therapy. Materials and Methods: There were forty patients (32 females, 80%), [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess the craniovertebral and craniomandibular changes in patients diagnosed with temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD) after physiotherapy combined with occlusal splint therapy. Materials and Methods: There were forty patients (32 females, 80%), diagnosed with TMD, included into the study group. After the initial series of physiotherapy, patients received maxillary occlusal splints to be worn day and night. Participants continued physiotherapy simultaneously with occlusal splint therapy for 6 months. Lateral cephalograms taken in natural head position before and after the end of the therapy were used for measurements. The control group consisted of 15 healthy participants (12 females, 80%), who had taken lateral cephalograms twice, and did not receive any type of occlusal treatment nor physiotherapy in the meantime. Results: Occlusal splint therapy and physiotherapy combined together significantly affected: the vertical position of the mandible (significant increase, p < 0.0001), the sagittal position of mandible (significant decrease, p = 0.0065), as well as the width of the functional space between C1 and C2 (significant decrease, p = 0.0042). Moreover, the cervical lordosis was restored after the end of the treatment (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: Cooperation of physiotherapists with dental practitioners is necessary in the treatment of patients with TMD, including temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Surgery)
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Article
Investigations of Personality Trait in Subacute Post-Stroke Patients: Some Preliminary Observations
Medicina 2022, 58(5), 683; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina58050683 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 414
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Personality change is an important psychiatric complication following stroke linked to severe affective dysregulation and behavioral alterations. Methods: We investigated personality traits in 20 patients (age 45.37 ± 13.41 years) with subacute stroke submitted to rehabilitation training within 1–3 months [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Personality change is an important psychiatric complication following stroke linked to severe affective dysregulation and behavioral alterations. Methods: We investigated personality traits in 20 patients (age 45.37 ± 13.41 years) with subacute stroke submitted to rehabilitation training within 1–3 months after a first-onset stroke. All patients underwent psychological evaluation by using the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 for adults (PID-5), a specific instrument that enables traits (dimensions and facets) to be assessed by providing a personality profile, and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems 47 (IIP-47), a brief and valid self-report measure for screening personality disorders. Results: Personality change was identified by a positive correlation IIP-47 and PID-5 (r = 0.76; p = 0.03). Our patients, after a stroke, presented maladaptive personality traits associated with negative affect such as anxiety, emotional lability, and rigid perfectionism, and they reported interpersonal problems. These negative affective disorders correlated positively with cluster C personality disorders, including the avoidant, dependent, and obsessive compulsive personality disorders. Conclusion: Preliminary results show personality changes in stroke survivors. The evaluation of personality changes could be useful to improve the management of the patient’s behavioral alterations in a familiar environment and permit the possibility of prevention of psychological distress of the patients and their respective caregivers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Neurology)
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Article
Five-Year Analysis of Surgical Site Infections in Three Orthopaedics and Trauma Wards under HAI-Net from the South of Poland in 2014–2018 Considering the Standardized Infection Ratio
Medicina 2022, 58(5), 682; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina58050682 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 468
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Surgical site infections (SSIs) are the most common healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in surgical wards. The highest risk of developing SSI is carried by operations involving implants, such as: hip prosthesis (HPRO), knee prosthesis (KPRO), open reduction of fracture (FX), [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Surgical site infections (SSIs) are the most common healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in surgical wards. The highest risk of developing SSI is carried by operations involving implants, such as: hip prosthesis (HPRO), knee prosthesis (KPRO), open reduction of fracture (FX), and closed reduction of fracture with internal fixation (CR). Objectives. The objective of the study was to assess the incidence of SSI in patients subjected to HPRO, KPRO, FX, and CR procedures in orthopaedics and trauma wards in 2014–2018 considering risk factors included in the SIR index. Materials and Methods: The study included 6261 patients who were subjected to orthopaedic surgery in 2014–2018. The investigation covered three hospitals with orthopaedics and trauma wards. The research was conducted in the framework of the national HAI surveillance programme according to the methodology of the HAI-Net, ECDC. Results: A total of 6261 surgeries were investigated, of which 111 cases of SSI were detected. The incidence was 1.8%; HPRO (incidence 2.1%, median (Me) surgery duration 90 min, and standardized infection ratio (SIR) above 1 in all units tested); KPRO (incidence 2.0%, Me 103 min, and SIR above 1 for all units tested); FX (incidence 1.9%, Me 70 min, and SIR above 1 for two units tested and below 1 in one unit); CR (incidence 1.0%, Me 55 min, and SIR—not calculated). The etiological agents that were most frequently isolated from patients with SSI were Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Conclusions: HPRO, KPRO, and FX operations performed in the studied wards carried a higher risk of developing SSI than that predicted by SIR. SSIs accounted for a significant percentage of the overall infection pool in CR surgeries. Actions should be undertaken to reduce the incidence of SSI in these surgeries. There should be a hospital network which facilitates cooperation in order to better monitor and analyse the incidence of SSI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Surgery)
Review
Identification of Multiple Hub Genes in Acute Kidney Injury after Kidney Transplantation by Bioinformatics Analysis
Medicina 2022, 58(5), 681; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina58050681 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 462
Abstract
Background and Objectives: The molecular mechanisms of the development of acute kidney injury (AKI) after kidney transplantation are not yet clear. The aim of this study was to confirm the genes and mechanisms related to AKI after transplantation. Materials and Methods: [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The molecular mechanisms of the development of acute kidney injury (AKI) after kidney transplantation are not yet clear. The aim of this study was to confirm the genes and mechanisms related to AKI after transplantation. Materials and Methods: To investigate potential genetic targets for AKI, an analysis of the gene expression omnibus database was used to identify key genes and pathways. After identification of differentially expressed genes, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome pathway enrichment analyses were performed. We identified the hub genes and established the protein–protein interaction network. Results: Finally, we identified 137 differentially expressed genes (59 upregulated genes and 16 downregulated genes). AKAP12, AMOT, C3AR1, LY96, PIK3AP1, PLCD4, PLCG2, TENM2, TLR2, and TSPAN5 were filtrated by the hub genes related to the development of post-transplant AKI from the Protein–Protein Interaction (PPI) network. Conclusions: This may provide important evidence of the diagnostic and therapeutic biomarker of AKI. Full article
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Review
Updates on Measles Incidence and Eradication: Emphasis on the Immunological Aspects of Measles Infection
Medicina 2022, 58(5), 680; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina58050680 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 582
Abstract
Measles is an RNA virus infectious disease mainly seen in children. Despite the availability of an effective vaccine against measles, it remains a health issue in children. Although it is a self-limiting disease, it becomes severe in undernourished and immune-compromised individuals. Measles infection [...] Read more.
Measles is an RNA virus infectious disease mainly seen in children. Despite the availability of an effective vaccine against measles, it remains a health issue in children. Although it is a self-limiting disease, it becomes severe in undernourished and immune-compromised individuals. Measles infection is associated with secondary infections by opportunistic bacteria due to the immunosuppressive effects of the measles virus. Recent reports highlight that measles infection erases the already existing immune memory of various pathogens. This review covers the incidence, pathogenesis, measles variants, clinical presentations, secondary infections, elimination of measles virus on a global scale, and especially the immune responses related to measles infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogenesis, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics of Infectious Diseases)
Case Report
A Spontaneous Extracranial Internal Carotid Artery Dissection with Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease: A Case Report and Literature Review
Medicina 2022, 58(5), 679; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina58050679 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 506
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Non-cystic manifestation of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is an important risk factor for cerebral aneurysms. In this report, we describe a rare spontaneous internal carotid artery (ICA) dissection in a patient with ADPKD. Observations: A 38-year-old [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Non-cystic manifestation of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is an important risk factor for cerebral aneurysms. In this report, we describe a rare spontaneous internal carotid artery (ICA) dissection in a patient with ADPKD. Observations: A 38-year-old woman with a history of ADPKD and acute myocardial infarction due to coronary artery dissection experienced severe spontaneous pain on the left side of her neck. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a severe left ICA stenosis localized at its origin. Carotid plaque MRI showed that the stenotic lesion was due to a subacute intramural hematoma. Close follow-up by an imaging study was performed under the diagnosis of spontaneous extracranial ICA dissection, and spontaneous regression of the intramural hematoma was observed uneventfully. Conclusions: When patients with a history of ADPKD present with severe neck pain, it is crucial to consider the possibility of a spontaneous ICA dissection. A carotid plaque MRI is beneficial in the differential diagnosis. Conservative management may benefit patients without ischemic symptoms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cardiology)
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Review
Risk of Subsequent Hysterectomy after Expectant Management in the Treatment of Placenta Accreta Spectrum Disorders
Medicina 2022, 58(5), 678; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina58050678 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 381
Abstract
Management strategies for pregnancies with abnormal adherence/invasion of the placenta (placenta accreta spectrum, PAS) vary between centers. Expectant management (EM), defined as leaving the placenta in situ after the delivery of the baby, until its complete decomposition and elimination, has become a potential [...] Read more.
Management strategies for pregnancies with abnormal adherence/invasion of the placenta (placenta accreta spectrum, PAS) vary between centers. Expectant management (EM), defined as leaving the placenta in situ after the delivery of the baby, until its complete decomposition and elimination, has become a potential option for PAS disorders in selected cases, in which the risk of Caesarean hysterectomy is very high. However, expectant management has its own risks and complications. The aim of this study was to describe the rates of subsequent hysterectomy (HT) in patients that underwent EM for the treatment of PAS disorders. We reviewed the literature on the subject and found 12 studies reporting cases of HT after initial intended EM. The studies included 1918 pregnant women diagnosed with PAS, of whom 518 (27.1%) underwent EM. Out of these, 121 (33.2%) required subsequent HT in the 12 months following delivery. The rates of HT after initial EM were very different between the studies, ranging from 0 to 85.7%, reflecting the different characteristics of the patients and different institutional management protocols. Prospective multicenter studies, in which the inclusion criteria and management strategies would be uniform, are needed to better understand the role EM might play in the treatment of PAS disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Obstetrics and Gynecology)
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Systematic Review
Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy Provides Limited Therapeutic Effects on Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Medicina 2022, 58(5), 677; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina58050677 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 563
Abstract
Night wrist splinting has been a conservative treatment for carpal tunnel syndrome. The addition of extracorporeal shock wave therapy provides an alternative treatment. However, strong evidence on the clinical effectiveness of extracorporeal shock wave therapy for carpal tunnel syndrome is still lacking. This [...] Read more.
Night wrist splinting has been a conservative treatment for carpal tunnel syndrome. The addition of extracorporeal shock wave therapy provides an alternative treatment. However, strong evidence on the clinical effectiveness of extracorporeal shock wave therapy for carpal tunnel syndrome is still lacking. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness and safety of extracorporeal shock wave therapy compared with treatments of night wrist splints alone for patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, no limitation criteria were used for study selection. All available articles that compare the effectiveness between extracorporeal shock wave therapy combined with night wrist splint and night wrist splint alone for treating carpal tunnel syndrome published up to 20 January 2022 were identified from the databases of PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials Central. The primary outcomes were a standard mean difference with a 95% confidence interval on the improvement of symptom severity and functional impairment between the two groups. In an attempt to analyze trends over time in studies that report repeated measurements, an all time-points meta-analysis (ATM) was undertaken. Seven randomized controlled trials with a total of 376 participants were included in this study. Significant improvements in functional impairment and symptom remission were only observed in the extracorporeal shock wave group at four weeks post-treatment. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy did not demonstrate superior efficacy compared to treatment with night wrist splint alone at 8–10 and 12–14 weeks post-treatment, or through the ATM approach. In conclusion, the therapeutic effect of extracorporeal shock wave therapy is transient and mostly nonsignificant compared with using night wrist splint alone. No serious side effects were reported in all included studies. Other conservative treatments to ameliorate carpal tunnel syndrome symptoms are warranted. Full article
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Article
Intraretinal Cysts as a Manifestation of Retinal Angiomatous Proliferation in Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography
Medicina 2022, 58(5), 676; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina58050676 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 383
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Intraretinal cysts are common pathology observed inspectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) in patients with neovascular form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The aim of the study was to determine if the presence of intraretinal cysts is positively correlated [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Intraretinal cysts are common pathology observed inspectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) in patients with neovascular form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The aim of the study was to determine if the presence of intraretinal cysts is positively correlated with diagnosis of retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP) in optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Material and Methods: A total of 21 eyes with intraretinal cysts in SDOCT exam (Group1) and 21 eyes with subretinal fluid(Group 2) were enrolled into the study. In each eye, the presence of intraretinal neovascularization (IRN) and chorioretinal anastomosis (CRA) was evaluated in OCTA by two experienced graders. Results: IRN was observed in 20 eyes (95.2%) from Group 1 and 5 eyes (23.8%) from Group 2. Features of CRA were found in 18 eyes (80.95%) and 16 eyes (76.2%) respectively for Group 1 and 2. Patients with cysts are 50 (95% CI: 5.43–460.52) times more likely to have IRN (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The presence of intraretinal cysts on SDOCT retinal sections in eyes with neovascular AMD corresponds to the presence of IRN on OCTA examination. The results indicate that the absence of a cyst does not exclude the presence of IRN and CRA which can be identified on OCTA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Diagnostics and Therapy in Age-Related Macular Disease)
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Article
Psychological Health and Diabetes Self-Management among Patients with Type 2 Diabetes during COVID-19 in the Southwest of Saudi Arabia
Medicina 2022, 58(5), 675; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina58050675 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 459
Abstract
Background and objectives: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Saudi Arabia is high and rising steeply. However, the management of type 2 diabetic patients has largely employed a medical approach and ignored the self-care management approach. This observation has even been [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Saudi Arabia is high and rising steeply. However, the management of type 2 diabetic patients has largely employed a medical approach and ignored the self-care management approach. This observation has even been obscured further by the COVID-19 pandemic, which has affected the psychological health of these patients. This study aimed to understand the effects of psychological health and DSM on type 2 diabetic patients in the Jazan region during COVID-19. Materials and methods: An analytical cross-sectional study was employed in this study. Participants were type 2 diabetic patients from the diabetic center at Jazan, Saudi Arabia. The Arabic-translated version of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7) were used to collect data. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: Depression and anxiety were higher in females compared to males and were more reported by participants from urban compared to rural settings. Smoking and Khat chewing were inappropriate diabetic self-care management practices while exercising was appropriate. A negative correlation was observed between depression vs. health care utilization, and depression vs. diabetic self-care management. Anxiety results also showed similar findings to that of depression. Additionally, depression and anxiety were easily predicted by urban residence, and diabetic self-care management was predicted by exercise. Conclusions: Adequate self-care behavior in patients with type 2 diabetes is needed. Medical professionals should ensure improved efforts to accurately ascertain how an individual can implement the recommended lifestyle changes and facilitate self-care education. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endocrinology in the Time of COVID-19)
Editorial
Imaging of the Kidney and Urinary Tract: Current and Future Trends
Medicina 2022, 58(5), 673; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina58050673 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 320
Abstract
The role of imaging in healthcare has become more and more significant in the last decades [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Imaging of the Kidney and Urinary Tract)
Article
Quality of Life Evaluation Using SRS-30 Score for Operated Children and Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis
Medicina 2022, 58(5), 674; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina58050674 - 18 May 2022
Viewed by 518
Abstract
Background and objective: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (A.I.S.) is a disorder with a significant impact on health and self-image. This spinal deformity can affect between 2% and 4% of the adolescent population and may alter one’s quality of life. This study aims to [...] Read more.
Background and objective: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (A.I.S.) is a disorder with a significant impact on health and self-image. This spinal deformity can affect between 2% and 4% of the adolescent population and may alter one’s quality of life. This study aims to assess the patient outcome, satisfaction, and quality of life following surgical treatment using the SRS-30 questionnaire. Materials and Methods: A number of 49 children and adolescent patients diagnosed with idiopathic scoliosis that had surgery were included in this study. They thoroughly completed the SRS-30 questionnaire before and after the surgery, based on which data analysis was carried on. Correlations between the test results and imagistic data (pre- and postoperative Cobb angle, correction rate of Cobb angle, number of instrumented spinal segments, and number of pedicle screws/laminar hooks used in the surgery) were performed. Results: Our results showed that 87.76% of the patients were girls, and the mean age at surgery was 14.83 years. Postoperatively, the Cobb angle improved significantly (p < 0.0001). The questionnaire domain “Satisfaction with management” improved dramatically after surgery, averaging 13.65 points (91% out of the maximum score). The average postoperative test score was 125.1 points. Statistically significant correlations were found between the correction rate and SRS-30 score improvement (p < 0.001), in total as well as per each domain of the survey, respectively. Comparing the questionnaire domains, “Self-image” was positively correlated with “Satisfaction with management” (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: Better correction rate led to higher values of SRS-30 score. Additionally, the younger the age at surgery is, the higher the score. The number of instrumented spinal segments does not alter the quality of life. Overall, the most crucial factor influencing patient satisfaction after surgical treatment is self-image. Full article
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Case Report
Tomographic Imaging of Mucociliary Clearance Following Maxillary Sinus Augmentation: A Case Series
Medicina 2022, 58(5), 672; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina58050672 - 18 May 2022
Viewed by 434
Abstract
Mucociliary clearance (MCC) allows ventilation of graft particles that are displaced through a perforated Schneiderian membrane during maxillary sinus augmentation (MSA). However, it is very rarely confirmed by cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) images. It is not yet known how long the dislodged bone [...] Read more.
Mucociliary clearance (MCC) allows ventilation of graft particles that are displaced through a perforated Schneiderian membrane during maxillary sinus augmentation (MSA). However, it is very rarely confirmed by cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) images. It is not yet known how long the dislodged bone graft particles remain in the maxillary sinus or how quickly they are ventilated after MSA. The purpose of these case reports is to introduce tomographic imaging of ventilation of bone graft particles displaced through a perforated Schneiderian membrane after MSA. Four patients, who needed implant placement in the posterior maxilla, received MSA, during which the Schneiderian membrane was perforated but was not repaired. Therefore, some bone graft particles were dislocated into the sinus cavity. The sizes of the perforated membranes were measured and recorded. CBCT scans were taken at multiple time points after the surgery to visualize and trace the ejected material. In addition, the time from when the bone graft substitute was delivered to the sinus until the CBCT scans were taken was recorded. The expelled bone graft particles migrated to the ostium along the sinus wall immediately after MSA on CBCT images taken immediately after the surgery. No displaced graft particles were observed in the maxillary sinus on CBCT scans after 1 week. The CBCT scans at 6 months showed no unusual radiographic images. Within the limitations of the case reports, tomographic imaging revealed an MCC system that allows displaced graft particles to be ventilated into the ostium very early during MSA healing and not stagnate in the maxillary sinus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dentistry)
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Article
Duplex Analysis of Cannulated Vessels in Peripheral Veno-Arterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation
Medicina 2022, 58(5), 671; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina58050671 - 18 May 2022
Viewed by 446
Abstract
Background and objectives: Veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (V-A ECMO) cannulas have major repercussions on vascular hemodynamics that can potentially lead to limb ischemia. Duplex ultrasound enables the non-invasive analysis of vascular hemodynamics. This study aims to describe the duplex parameters of the femoral [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (V-A ECMO) cannulas have major repercussions on vascular hemodynamics that can potentially lead to limb ischemia. Duplex ultrasound enables the non-invasive analysis of vascular hemodynamics. This study aims to describe the duplex parameters of the femoral vessels during V-A ECMO support, investigate differences between cannulated and non-cannulated vessels, and analyze the variations in the case of limb ischemia and intra-aortic balloon pumps (IABPs). Methods: Nineteen adults (≥18 years), supported with femoro-femoral V-A ECMO, underwent a duplex analysis of the superficial femoral arteries (SFAs) and veins (FVs). Measured parameters included flow velocities, waveforms, and vessel diameters. Results: 89% of patients had a distal perfusion cannula during duplex analysis and 21% of patients developed limb ischemia. The mean peak systolic flow velocity (PSV) and end-diastolic flow velocity (EDV) of the SFAs on the cannulated side were, respectively, 42.4 and 21.4 cm/s. The SFAs on the non-cannulated side showed a mean PSV and EDV of 87.4 and 19.6 cm/s. All SFAs on the cannulated side had monophasic waveforms, whereas 63% of the SFAs on the non-cannulated side had a multiphasic waveform. Continuous/decreased waveforms were seen in 79% of the FVs on the cannulated side and 61% of the waveforms of the contralateral veins were respirophasic. The mean diameter of the FVs on the cannulated side, in patients who developed limb ischemia, was larger compared to the FVs on the non-cannulated side with a ratio of 1.41 ± 0.12. The group without limb ischemia had a smaller ratio of 1.03 ± 0.25. Conclusions: Femoral cannulas influence flow velocities in the cannulated vessels during V-A ECMO and major waveforms alternations can be seen in all SFAs on the cannulated side and most FVs on the cannulated side. Our data suggest possible venous stasis in the FV on the cannulated side, especially in patients suffering from limb ischemia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cardiology)
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Article
Deep Fat Saving Elevation of the Superficial Circumflex Iliac Artery Perforator Flap
Medicina 2022, 58(5), 670; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina58050670 - 18 May 2022
Viewed by 406
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Prolonged drain stay and lymphorrhea are often problems at the donor site of the superficial circumflex iliac artery perforator (SCIP) flap. This study aimed to introduce a novel technique of the SCIP flap elevation: Deep Fat Saving (DFS) technique. [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Prolonged drain stay and lymphorrhea are often problems at the donor site of the superficial circumflex iliac artery perforator (SCIP) flap. This study aimed to introduce a novel technique of the SCIP flap elevation: Deep Fat Saving (DFS) technique. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two patients who underwent the SCIP flap transfer were divided based on the flap-elevated layer: above the deep fascia or the Camper fascia saving the deep fat. The duration of drain stay and the rates of flap survival and donor-site complications were compared between the groups. The inverse probability weighting (IPW) method was conducted to balance confounders. Results: By IPW, two balanced pseudo-populations were created: DFS = 33.9 and Conventional = 31.3. There were no significant differences in the rate of flap survival (DFS: 100% verses Conventional: 95.8%, p = 0.32) and donor site complications (DFS: 2.4% versus Conventional: 1.3%, p = 0.68, respectively). The duration of drain stay was shorter in the DFS group (weighted median: 6 versus 8 days; weighted difference: −1.6 days (95% confidence interval: −2.8 to −0.4), p = 0.01). Conclusions: An SCIP flap can be reliably harvested using the Deep Fat Saving technique. Full article
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Review
Ischemia-Modified Albumin—A Potential New Marker of Oxidative Stress in Dermatological Diseases
Medicina 2022, 58(5), 669; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina58050669 - 17 May 2022
Viewed by 581
Abstract
There is growing evidence that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of numerous conditions, including dermatological diseases. Various markers are available to assess oxidative stress, but none of these can be considered the ideal marker. Recent studies have shown that ischemia-modified albumin [...] Read more.
There is growing evidence that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of numerous conditions, including dermatological diseases. Various markers are available to assess oxidative stress, but none of these can be considered the ideal marker. Recent studies have shown that ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) is not only an indicator of ischemia, but also a marker of oxidative stress. We have conducted a narrative review to evaluate the role of IMA in dermatological diseases. We have identified 24 original articles that evaluated IMA in skin disorders (psoriasis, acne vulgaris, hidradenitis suppurativa, urticaria, vitiligo and Behcet’s disease) and hair disorders (alopecia areata, androgenetic alopecia and telogen effluvium). The results of the studies analyzed reveal that IMA may be considered a new marker of oxidative stress in dermatological diseases and offer new insights into the pathogenesis of these disorders and the theoretical basis for the development of new, effective, targeted therapies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first review that gathers up data on the role of IMA in dermatological diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chronic Inflammatory Skin Diseases: Current Treatment and Future)
Article
Comparative Efficacy of Different Oral Doses of Clindamycin in Preventing Post-Operative Sequelae of Lower Third Molar Surgery—A Randomized, Triple-Blind Study
Medicina 2022, 58(5), 668; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina58050668 - 17 May 2022
Viewed by 411
Abstract
Background and Objectives. Antibiotic regimen optimization is a major concern in post extraction sequelae management following third molar surgery, mostly owing to the absence of universal guidelines. Hence, this study aimed to determine the effect of antibiotic prophylaxis using three different doses [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives. Antibiotic regimen optimization is a major concern in post extraction sequelae management following third molar surgery, mostly owing to the absence of universal guidelines. Hence, this study aimed to determine the effect of antibiotic prophylaxis using three different doses of clindamycin on the prevention of infection and other complications following mandibular third molar disimpaction. The secondary outcome was testing whether clindamycin exhibits activity in acute or chronic models of pain using the visual analog scale of pain and the necessity for post-operative rescue analgesia. The tertiary outcome was to assess clindamycin penetration into the saliva by measuring its concentration using liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Materials and Methods. A randomized, two-center, triple-blind, controlled clinical trial was conducted, in which the patients were randomly allocated to three groups: I, receiving 150 mg clindamycin every 8 h; II, receiving 300 mg clindamycin every 8 h; and III, receiving 600 mg clindamycin every 12 h. Each group continued the therapy for five days. Results. An overall decrease in the risk of infection and other post-operative complications, such as trismus, edema, dysphagia, and lymphadenopathy, was achieved, with the best results in group I. Conclusion. As no statistical association was observed between clindamycin concentration in saliva and degree of post-operative inflammation, clindamycin concentration, or pain intensity, smaller doses of clindamycin administered over shorter time periods is recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dentistry)
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Article
Evaluation of Renal Function after Partial Nephrectomy and Detection of Clinically Significant Acute Kidney Injury
Medicina 2022, 58(5), 667; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina58050667 - 17 May 2022
Viewed by 504
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Consequences of partial nephrectomy (PN), intraoperative hypotension (IOH) and postoperative neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) may cause postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) and in long-term-chronic kidney disease (CKD). Our study aimed to identify the AKI incidence after PN, to [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Consequences of partial nephrectomy (PN), intraoperative hypotension (IOH) and postoperative neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) may cause postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) and in long-term-chronic kidney disease (CKD). Our study aimed to identify the AKI incidence after PN, to find clinically significant postoperative AKI and renal dysfunction, and to determine the predictor factors. Materials and Methods: A prospective observational study consisted of 91 patients who received PN with warm ischemia, and estimated preoperative glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥ 60 mL/min and without abnormal albuminuria. Results: 38 (41.8%) patients experienced postoperative AKI. Twenty-one (24.1%) patients had CKD upstage after 1 year follow-up. Sixty-seven percent of CKD upstage patients had AKI 48 h after surgery and 11% after 2 months. All 15 (16.5%) patients with CKD had postoperative AKI. With IOH, OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.03–1.10 and p < 0.001, postoperative NLR after 48 h (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.19–1.88, p < 0.001) was the major risk factor of AKI. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, the kidney’s resected part volume (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.03–1.14, p < 0.001) and IOH (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.04–1.15, p < 0.001) were retained as statistically significant prognostic factors for detecting postoperative renal dysfunction. The independent risk factor for clinically significant postoperative AKI was only IOH (OR, 1.06; p < 0.001). Only AKI with the CKD upstage group has a statistically significant effect (p < 0.0001) on eGFR 6 and 12 months after surgery. Conclusions: The presence of AKI after PN is not rare. IOH and NLR are associated with postoperative AKI. The most important predictive factor of postoperative AKI is an NLR of over 3.5. IOH is an independent risk factor for clinically significant postoperative AKI and together with kidney resected part volume effects postoperative renal dysfunction. Only clinically significant postoperative AKI influences the reduction of postoperative eGFR after 6 and 12 months. Full article
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Case Report
Sorafenib in Metastatic Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma with BRAF K601E Mutation on Liquid Biopsy: A Case Report and Literature Review
Medicina 2022, 58(5), 666; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina58050666 - 17 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 595
Abstract
Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) includes papillary and follicular carcinomas and is the most common type of thyroid cancer. The incidence of this cancer has increased in the last few years, and even if its prognosis is generally good for a subset of patients [...] Read more.
Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) includes papillary and follicular carcinomas and is the most common type of thyroid cancer. The incidence of this cancer has increased in the last few years, and even if its prognosis is generally good for a subset of patients that does not respond to radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy, the prognosis is much worse: the median overall survival (OS) from discovery of metastasis is 3–5 years and the 10-year survival rate is only 10%. Several mutations, including RAS or RET, as well as BRAF signaling, are associated with thyroid cancer. Liquid biopsy may be useful in selected patient to identify genomic alterations and thus allowing for a precision medicine approach with target therapy. Sorafenib, an oral multi-kinase inhibitor, can be used in the treatment of DTC. Case presentation: A 77 years old. man with diagnosis of metastatic DTC and evidence of presence of mutation of BRAF K601E on liquid biopsy was treated with sorafenib, showing a good response to the treatment and an improvement in the quality of life (QoL). Currently, this patient is still on treatment with sorafenib, gaining control of a multi-metastatic disease, generally characterized by a very poor prognosis. In conclusion, sorafenib has an active role in the treatment of DTC. It also has been considered the standard of care for patients with advanced unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and renal cell carcinoma (RCC). In our case we observe the efficacy of using sorafenib in Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) such as confirming both stable disease (SD) in the CT scan as clinical benefit with an increase in QoL. Therefore, use of sorafenib remains an important treatment option, even in case of BRAF mutation, despite a rapidly evolving treatment landscape. It also seems important to perform liquid biopsies, especially in patients in whom it is not possible to repeat a new tissue biopsy. Ongoing clinical trials continue to evaluate sorafenib in different settings, and in combination with other therapies in DTC and HCC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Oncology)
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Review
A Diagnostic Insight of Dental Pulp Testing Methods in Pediatric Dentistry
Medicina 2022, 58(5), 665; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina58050665 - 16 May 2022
Viewed by 428
Abstract
The accurate diagnosis of pulpal pathology in pediatric dentistry is essential for the success of vital pulp therapy. Pulp testing is often a challenging task due to understanding and cooperation issues of pediatric patients, as well as the particularities of pulpal physiology encountered [...] Read more.
The accurate diagnosis of pulpal pathology in pediatric dentistry is essential for the success of vital pulp therapy. Pulp testing is often a challenging task due to understanding and cooperation issues of pediatric patients, as well as the particularities of pulpal physiology encountered in primary and immature permanent teeth. Sensibility tests, although still widely used by dental practitioners, are no longer recommended by pediatric specialists mainly due to their subjective nature. Vitality pulp tests have gained popularity in the last decade in light of some encouraging results of clinical studies. However, their use is not a routine practice yet. This paper is a literature review aimed to guide dental practitioners towards selecting the appropriate pulp testing method for their pediatric cases. It provides an overview on a multitude of pulp testing methods and an update in recommendations for primary and immature permanent teeth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
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Case Report
Parvovirus (B19) Infection during Pregnancy: Possible Effect on the Course of Pregnancy and Rare Fetal Outcomes. A Case Report and Literature Review
Medicina 2022, 58(5), 664; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina58050664 - 15 May 2022
Viewed by 578
Abstract
Infection caused by human parvovirus B19 (B19) often has mild yet wide-ranging clinical signs, with the course of disease usually defined as benign. Particularly prevalent in the population of young children, the virus is commonly transmitted to the parents, especially to susceptible mothers. [...] Read more.
Infection caused by human parvovirus B19 (B19) often has mild yet wide-ranging clinical signs, with the course of disease usually defined as benign. Particularly prevalent in the population of young children, the virus is commonly transmitted to the parents, especially to susceptible mothers. During pregnancy, particularly the first and second trimesters, parvovirus infection can lead to pathology of the fetus: anemia, heart failure, hydrops, and disorders of physical and neurological development. In severe cases, the disease can result in fetal demise. This article presents a rare case of manifestation of B19 infection during pregnancy. At the 27th week of gestation, a sudden change in fetal movement occurred in a previously healthy pregnancy. The examination of both fetus and the mother revealed newly formed fetal subdural hematoma of unknown etiology and ventriculomegaly. Following extensive examination to ascertain the origin of fetal pathology, a maternal B19 infection was detected. Due to worsening fetal condition, a planned cesarean section was performed to terminate the pregnancy at 31 weeks of gestation. A preterm male newborn was delivered in a critical condition with congenital B19 infection, hydrocephalus, and severe progressive encephalopathy. The manifestation and the origin of the fetal condition remain partially unclear. The transplacental transmission of maternal B19 infection to the fetus occurs in approximately 30% of cases. The main method for diagnosing B19 infection is Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) performed on blood serum. In the absence of clinical manifestations, the early diagnosis of B19 infection is rarely achieved. As a result, the disease left untreated can progress inconspicuously and cause serious complications. Treatment strategies are limited and depend on the condition of the pregnant woman and the fetus. When applicable, intrauterine blood transfusion reduces the risk of fetal mortality. It is crucial to assess the predisposing factors of the infection and evaluate signs of early manifestation, as this may help prevent the progression and poor outcomes of the disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Obstetrics and Gynecology)
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Article
Accuracy and Reliability of Software Navigation for Acetabular Component Placement in THA: An In Vitro Validation Study
Medicina 2022, 58(5), 663; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina58050663 - 14 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 499
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Intraoperative fluoroscopy can be used to increase the accuracy of the acetabular component positioning during total hip arthroplasty. However, given the three-dimensional nature of cup positioning, it can be difficult to accurately assess inclination and anteversion angles based on [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Intraoperative fluoroscopy can be used to increase the accuracy of the acetabular component positioning during total hip arthroplasty. However, given the three-dimensional nature of cup positioning, it can be difficult to accurately assess inclination and anteversion angles based on two-dimensional imaging. The purpose of this study is to validate a novel method for calculating the 3D orientation of the acetabular cup from 2D fluoroscopic imaging. Materials and Methods: An acetabular cup was implanted into a radio-opaque pelvis model in nine positions sequentially, and the inclination and anteversion angles were collected in each position using two methods: (1) a coordinate measurement machine (CMM) was used to establish a digitalized anatomical coordinate frame based on pelvic landmarks of the cadaveric specimen, and the 3D position of the cup was then expressed with respect to the anatomical planes; (2) AP radiographic images were collected, and a mathematical formula was utilized to calculate the 3D inclination and anteversion based on the 2D images. The results of each method were compared, and interrater and intrarater reliably of the 2D method were calculated. Results: Interrater reliability was excellent, with an interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.988 (95% CI 0.975–0.994) for anteversion and 0.997 (95% CI 0.991–0.999) for inclination, as was intrarater reliability, with an ICC of 0.995 (95% CI 0.985–0.998) for anteversion and 0.998 (95% CI 0.994–0.999) for inclination. Intermethod accuracy was excellent with an ICC of 0.986 (95% CI: 0.972–0.993) for anteversion and 0.993 (95% CI: 0.989–0.995) for inclination. The Bland–Altman limit of agreement, which represents the error between the 2D and 3D methods, was found to range between 2 to 5 degrees. Conclusions: This data validates the proposed methodology to calculate 3D anteversion and inclination angles based on 2D fluoroscopic images to within five degrees. This method can be utilized to improve acetabular component placing intraoperatively and to check component placement postoperatively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Total Hip Arthroplasty—Current Challenges)
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