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Mar. Drugs, Volume 19, Issue 1 (January 2021) – 44 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Microbial natural products are important for the understanding of microbial interactions, chemical defense and communication and have also served as an inspirational source for numerous pharmaceutical drugs. Tropical marine cyanobacteria have been highlighted as a great source of new natural products; however, few reports have appeared wherein a multi-omics approach has been used to study their natural products potential. This study focuses on describing the natural product genetic potential as well as the expressed natural product molecules in benthic tropical cyanobacteria. Our results highlight a number of highly interesting biosynthetic gene clusters for genome mining among these cyanobacterial samples. View this paper.
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Open AccessArticle
A Conantokin Peptide Con-T[M8Q] Inhibits Morphine Dependence with High Potency and Low Side Effects
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(1), 44; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19010044 - 19 Jan 2021
Viewed by 396
Abstract
N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists have been found to be effective to inhibit morphine dependence. However, the discovery of the selective antagonist for NMDAR GluN2B with low side-effects still remains challenging. In the present study, we report a selective NMDAR GluN2B antagonist con-T[M8Q](a [...] Read more.
N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists have been found to be effective to inhibit morphine dependence. However, the discovery of the selective antagonist for NMDAR GluN2B with low side-effects still remains challenging. In the present study, we report a selective NMDAR GluN2B antagonist con-T[M8Q](a conantokin-T variant) that potently inhibits the naloxone-induced jumping and conditioned place preference of morphine-dependent mice at nmol/kg level, 100-fold higher than ifenprodil, a classical NMDAR NR2B antagonist. Con-T[M8Q] displays no significant impacts on coordinated locomotion function, spontaneous locomotor activity, and spatial memory mice motor function at the dose used. Further molecular mechanism experiments demonstrate that con-T[M8Q] effectively inhibited the transcription and expression levels of signaling molecules related to NMDAR NR2B subunit in hippocampus, including NR2B, p-NR2B, CaMKII-α, CaMKII-β, CaMKIV, pERK, and c-fos. The high efficacy and low side effects of con-T[M8Q] make it a good lead compound for the treatment of opiate dependence and for the reduction of morphine usage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cone Snail Venom Peptides, from Treasure Hunt to Drug Leads)
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Open AccessReview
Cold-Active β-Galactosidases: Insight into Cold Adaption Mechanisms and Biotechnological Exploitation
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(1), 43; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19010043 - 19 Jan 2021
Viewed by 320
Abstract
β-galactosidases (EC 3.2.1.23) catalyze the hydrolysis of β-galactosidic bonds in oligosaccharides and, under certain conditions, transfer a sugar moiety from a glycosyl donor to an acceptor. Cold-active β-galactosidases are identified in microorganisms endemic to permanently low-temperature environments. While mesophilic β-galactosidases are broadly studied [...] Read more.
β-galactosidases (EC 3.2.1.23) catalyze the hydrolysis of β-galactosidic bonds in oligosaccharides and, under certain conditions, transfer a sugar moiety from a glycosyl donor to an acceptor. Cold-active β-galactosidases are identified in microorganisms endemic to permanently low-temperature environments. While mesophilic β-galactosidases are broadly studied and employed for biotechnological purposes, the cold-active enzymes are still scarcely explored, although they may prove very useful in biotechnological processes at low temperature. This review covers several issues related to cold-active β-galactosidases, including their classification, structure and molecular mechanisms of cold adaptation. Moreover, their applications are discussed, focusing on the production of lactose-free dairy products as well as on the valorization of cheese whey and the synthesis of glycosyl building blocks for the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzymes and Ice Binding Proteins from Marine Cold-Adapted Organisms)
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Open AccessArticle
Density Functional Theory (DFT)-Aided Structure Elucidation of Linear Diterpenes from the Irish Brown Seaweed Bifurcaria bifurcata
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(1), 42; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19010042 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 444
Abstract
Brown alga Bifurcaria bifurcata is an extraordinarily rich source of linear (acylic) diterpenes with enormous structural diversity. As part of our interest into secondary metabolites of the Irish seaweeds, here we report four new acyclic diterpenes (14) and seven [...] Read more.
Brown alga Bifurcaria bifurcata is an extraordinarily rich source of linear (acylic) diterpenes with enormous structural diversity. As part of our interest into secondary metabolites of the Irish seaweeds, here we report four new acyclic diterpenes (14) and seven known terpenoids (511) from the CHCl3 extract of B. bifurcata. The planar structures of the new metabolites were elucidated by means of 1D and 2D NMR, HRMS, and FT-IR spectroscopy. Since linear diterpenes are highly flexible compounds, the assignment of their stereochemistry by conventional methods, e.g., NOESY NMR, is difficult. Therefore, we employed extensive quantum-mechanical prediction of NMR chemical shifts and optical rotation analyses to identify the relative and absolute configurations of the new compounds 14. Several compounds moderately inhibited the human breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231) with IC50 values ranging from 10.0 to 33.5 μg/mL. This study not only demonstrates the vast capacity of the Irish B. bifurcata to produce highly oxygenated linear diterpenoids, but also highlights the potential of new methodologies for assignment of their stereogenic centers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Topsentinol L Trisulfate, a Marine Natural Product That Targets Basal-like and Claudin-Low Breast Cancers
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(1), 41; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19010041 - 18 Jan 2021
Viewed by 416
Abstract
Patients diagnosed with basal-like breast cancer suffer from poor prognosis and limited treatment options. There is an urgent need to identify new targets that can benefit patients with basal-like and claudin-low (BL-CL) breast cancers. We screened fractions from our Marine Invertebrate Compound Library [...] Read more.
Patients diagnosed with basal-like breast cancer suffer from poor prognosis and limited treatment options. There is an urgent need to identify new targets that can benefit patients with basal-like and claudin-low (BL-CL) breast cancers. We screened fractions from our Marine Invertebrate Compound Library (MICL) to identify compounds that specifically target BL-CL breast cancers. We identified a previously unreported trisulfated sterol, i.e., topsentinol L trisulfate (TLT), which exhibited increased efficacy against BL-CL breast cancers relative to luminal/HER2+ breast cancer. Biochemical investigation of the effects of TLT on BL-CL cell lines revealed its ability to inhibit activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1) and to promote activation of p38. The importance of targeting AMPK and CHK1 in BL-CL cell lines was validated by treating a panel of breast cancer cell lines with known small molecule inhibitors of AMPK (dorsomorphin) and CHK1 (Ly2603618) and recording the increased effectiveness against BL-CL breast cancers as compared with luminal/HER2+ breast cancer. Finally, we generated a drug response gene-expression signature and projected it against a human tumor panel of 12 different cancer types to identify other cancer types sensitive to the compound. The TLT sensitivity gene-expression signature identified breast and bladder cancer as the most sensitive to TLT, while glioblastoma multiforme was the least sensitive. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
First Detection of Tetrodotoxins in the Cotylean Flatworm Prosthiostomum trilineatum
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(1), 40; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19010040 - 18 Jan 2021
Viewed by 534
Abstract
Several polyclad flatworm species are known to contain high levels of tetrodotoxin (TTX), but currently TTX-bearing flatworms seem to be restricted to specific Planocera lineages belonging to the suborder Acotylea. During our ongoing study of flatworm toxins, high concentrations of TTXs were detected [...] Read more.
Several polyclad flatworm species are known to contain high levels of tetrodotoxin (TTX), but currently TTX-bearing flatworms seem to be restricted to specific Planocera lineages belonging to the suborder Acotylea. During our ongoing study of flatworm toxins, high concentrations of TTXs were detected for the first time in the flatworm Prosthiostomum trilineatum, suborder Cotylea, from the coastal area of Hayama, Kanagawa, Japan. Toxin levels were investigated by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), revealing that this species contains comparable concentrations of toxins as seen in planocerid flatworms such as Planocera multitentaculata. This finding indicated that there may be other species with significant levels of TTXs. The distribution of TTXs among other flatworm species is thus of great interest. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Toxins in Non-traditional Vectors)
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Open AccessArticle
Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Effects of TRPV1 Polypeptide Modulator APHC3 in Models of Osteo- and Rheumatoid Arthritis
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(1), 39; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19010039 - 17 Jan 2021
Viewed by 423
Abstract
Arthritis is a widespread inflammatory disease associated with progressive articular surface degradation, ongoing pain, and hyperalgesia causing the development of functional limitations and disability. TRPV1 channel is one of the high-potential targets for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Polypeptide APHC3 from sea anemone [...] Read more.
Arthritis is a widespread inflammatory disease associated with progressive articular surface degradation, ongoing pain, and hyperalgesia causing the development of functional limitations and disability. TRPV1 channel is one of the high-potential targets for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Polypeptide APHC3 from sea anemone Heteractis crispa is a mode-selective TRPV1 antagonist that causes mild hypothermia and shows significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity in different models of pain. We evaluated the anti-inflammatory properties of APHC3 in models of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)-induced osteoarthritis and complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA)-induced rheumatoid monoarthritis in comparison with commonly used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as diclofenac, ibuprofen, and meloxicam. Subcutaneous administration of APHC3 (0.1 mg/kg) significantly reversed joint swelling, disability, grip strength impairment, and thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity. The effect of APHC3 was equal to or better than that of reference NSAIDs. Protracted treatment with APHC3 decreased IL-1b concentration in synovial fluid, reduced inflammatory changes in joints, and prevented the progression of cartilage degradation. Therefore, polypeptide APHC3 has the potential to be an analgesic and anti-inflammatory substance for the alleviation of arthritis symptoms. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Bioactive Compounds from Marine Invertebrates)
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Open AccessArticle
An Anti-Inflammatory 2,4-Cyclized-3,4-Secospongian Diterpenoid and Furanoterpene-Related Metabolites of a Marine Sponge Spongia sp. from the Red Sea
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(1), 38; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19010038 - 16 Jan 2021
Viewed by 418
Abstract
Chemical investigation of a Red Sea Spongia sp. led to the isolation of four new compounds, i.e., 17-dehydroxysponalactone (1), a carboxylic acid, spongiafuranic acid A (2), one hydroxamic acid, spongiafuranohydroxamic acid A (3), and a furanyl trinorsesterpenoid [...] Read more.
Chemical investigation of a Red Sea Spongia sp. led to the isolation of four new compounds, i.e., 17-dehydroxysponalactone (1), a carboxylic acid, spongiafuranic acid A (2), one hydroxamic acid, spongiafuranohydroxamic acid A (3), and a furanyl trinorsesterpenoid 16-epi-irciformonin G (4), along with three known metabolites (−)-sponalisolide B (5), 18-nor- 3,17-dihydroxy-spongia-3,13(16),14-trien-2-one (6), and cholesta-7-ene-3β,5α-diol-6-one (7). The biosynthetic pathway for the molecular skeleton of 1 and related compounds was postulated for the first time. Anti-inflammatory activity of these metabolites to inhibit superoxide anion generation and elastase release in N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl phenylalanine/cytochalasin B (fMLF/CB)-induced human neutrophil cells and cytotoxicity of these compounds toward three cancer cell lines and one human dermal fibroblast cell line were assayed. Compound 1 was found to significantly reduce the superoxide anion generation and elastase release at a concentration of 10 μM, and compound 5 was also found to display strong inhibitory activity against superoxide anion generation at the same concentration. Due to the noncytotoxic activity and the potent inhibitory effect toward the superoxide anion generation and elastase release, 1 and 5 can be considered to be promising anti-inflammatory agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from Marine Sponges 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
In Vitro Evaluation of Antioxidant Potential of the Invasive Seagrass Halophila stipulacea
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(1), 37; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19010037 - 16 Jan 2021
Viewed by 349
Abstract
Marine organisms with fast growth rates and great biological adaptive capacity might have biotechnological interests, since ecological competitiveness might rely on enhanced physiological or biochemical processes’ capability promoting protection, defense, or repair intracellular damages. The invasive seagrass Halophila stipulacea, a non-indigenous species [...] Read more.
Marine organisms with fast growth rates and great biological adaptive capacity might have biotechnological interests, since ecological competitiveness might rely on enhanced physiological or biochemical processes’ capability promoting protection, defense, or repair intracellular damages. The invasive seagrass Halophila stipulacea, a non-indigenous species widespread in the Mediterranean Sea, belongs to this category. This is the premise to investigate the biotechnological interest of this species. In this study, we investigated the antioxidant activity in vitro, both in scavenging reactive oxygen species and in repairing damages from oxidative stress on the fibroblast human cell line WI-38. Together with the biochemical analysis, the antioxidant activity was characterized by the study of the expression of oxidative stress gene in WI-38 cells in presence or absence of the H. stipulacea extract. Concomitantly, the pigment pool of the extracts, as well as their macromolecular composition was characterized. This study was done separately on mature and young leaves. Results indicated that mature leaves exerted a great activity in scavenging reactive oxygen species and repairing damages from oxidative stress in the WI-38 cell line. This activity was paralleled to an enhanced carotenoids content in the mature leaf extracts and a higher carbohydrate contribution to organic matter. Our results suggest a potential of the old leaves of H. stipulacea as oxidative stress damage protecting or repair agents in fibroblast cell lines. This study paves the way to transmute the invasive H. stipulacea environmental threat in goods for human health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances and New Perspectives in Marine Biotechnology 2.0)
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Open AccessArticle
Preliminary Evaluation of 3D Printed Chitosan/Pectin Constructs for Biomedical Applications
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(1), 36; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19010036 - 15 Jan 2021
Viewed by 363
Abstract
In the present study, chitosan (CS) and pectin (PEC) were utilized for the preparation of 3D printable inks through pneumatic extrusion for biomedical applications. CS is a polysaccharide with beneficial properties; however, its printing behavior is not satisfying, rendering the addition of a [...] Read more.
In the present study, chitosan (CS) and pectin (PEC) were utilized for the preparation of 3D printable inks through pneumatic extrusion for biomedical applications. CS is a polysaccharide with beneficial properties; however, its printing behavior is not satisfying, rendering the addition of a thickening agent necessary, i.e., PEC. The influence of PEC in the prepared inks was assessed through rheological measurements, altering the viscosity of the inks to be suitable for 3D printing. 3D printing conditions were optimized and the effect of different drying procedures, along with the presence or absence of a gelating agent on the CS-PEC printed scaffolds were assessed. The mean pore size along with the average filament diameter were measured through SEM micrographs. Interactions among the characteristic groups of the two polymers were evident through FTIR spectra. Swelling and hydrolysis measurements confirmed the influence of gelation and drying procedure on the subsequent behavior of the scaffolds. Ascribed to the beneficial pore size and swelling behavior, fibroblasts were able to survive upon exposure to the ungelated scaffolds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Marine Chitin and Chitosan)
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Open AccessArticle
New Haloterpenes from the Marine Red Alga Laurencia papillosa: Structure Elucidation and Biological Activity
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(1), 35; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19010035 - 14 Jan 2021
Viewed by 371
Abstract
Analysis of the air-dried marine red alga Laurencia papillosa, collected near Ras-Bakr at the Suez gulf (Red Sea) in Egypt delivered five new halogenated terpene derivatives: aplysiolic acid (1), 7-acetyl-aplysiol (2), aplysiol-7-one (3), 11,14-dihydroaplysia-5,11,14,15-tetrol (5a [...] Read more.
Analysis of the air-dried marine red alga Laurencia papillosa, collected near Ras-Bakr at the Suez gulf (Red Sea) in Egypt delivered five new halogenated terpene derivatives: aplysiolic acid (1), 7-acetyl-aplysiol (2), aplysiol-7-one (3), 11,14-dihydroaplysia-5,11,14,15-tetrol (5a), and a new maneonene derivative 6, named 5-epi-maneolactone. The chemical structures of these metabolites were characterized employing spectroscopic methods, and the relative and absolute configurations were determined by comparison of experimental and ab initio-calculated NMR, NOE, ECD, and ORD data, and by X-ray diffraction of 2 and 6. The antimicrobial activities of the crude extract and compounds 13, 5a and 6 were studied. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
In Vitro Chemopreventive Potential of Phlorotannins-Rich Extract from Brown Algae by Inhibition of Benzo[a]pyrene-Induced P2X7 Activation and Toxic Effects
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(1), 34; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19010034 - 14 Jan 2021
Viewed by 339
Abstract
Phlorotannins are polyphenols occurring exclusively in some species of brown algae, known for numerous biological activities, e.g., antioxidant, antiproliferative, antidiabetic, and antiallergic properties. Their effects on the response of human lung cells to benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) has not been characterized. Our objective was to [...] Read more.
Phlorotannins are polyphenols occurring exclusively in some species of brown algae, known for numerous biological activities, e.g., antioxidant, antiproliferative, antidiabetic, and antiallergic properties. Their effects on the response of human lung cells to benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) has not been characterized. Our objective was to in vitro evaluate the effects of a phlorotannin-rich extract obtained from the brown algae Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus on B[a]P cytotoxic effects. The A549 cell line was incubated with B[a]P for 48 and 72 h in the presence or absence of the brown algae extract. Cytochrome P450 activity, activation of P2X7 receptor, F-actin disorganization, and loss of E-cadherin expression were assessed using microplate cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Relative to control, incubation with the brown algae extract was associated with lower B[a]P-induced CYP1 activity, lower P2X7 receptor activation, and lower reactive oxygen species production. The brown algae extract inhibited the alterations of F-actin arrangement and the downregulation of E-cadherin expression. We identified a phlorotannins-rich extract that could be deeper investigated as a cancer chemopreventive agent to block B[a]P-mediated carcinogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Marine Compounds and Cancer) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
A Microencapsulation Method for Delivering Tetrodotoxin to Bivalves to Investigate Uptake and Accumulation
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(1), 33; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19010033 - 13 Jan 2021
Viewed by 424
Abstract
Most marine biotoxins are produced by microalgae. The neurotoxin tetrodotoxin (TTX) has been reported in many seafood species worldwide but its source is unknown, making accumulation and depuration studies in shellfish difficult. Tetrodotoxin is a water-soluble toxin and cannot be directly ingested by [...] Read more.
Most marine biotoxins are produced by microalgae. The neurotoxin tetrodotoxin (TTX) has been reported in many seafood species worldwide but its source is unknown, making accumulation and depuration studies in shellfish difficult. Tetrodotoxin is a water-soluble toxin and cannot be directly ingested by shellfish. In the present study, a method was developed which involved binding TTX to solid particles of humic acid and encapsulating them in agar-gelatin capsules. A controlled quantity of TTX-containing microcapsules (size range 20–280 μm) was fed to Paphies australis, a bivalve known to accumulate TTX in the wild. The TTX-containing microcapsules were fed to P. australis every second day for 13 days. Ten P. australis (including five controls fed non-toxic microalgae) were harvested after 7 days and ten after 13 days. Paphies australis accumulated TTX, reaching concentrations of up to 103 µg kg−1 by day 13, exceeding the European Food Safety Authority recommended concentration of 44 μg kg−1 in shellfish. This novel method will allow future studies to explore the effects, accumulation and depuration rates of TTX in different animals and document how it is transferred through food webs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tetrodotoxin: Chemistry, Toxicity, Source, Distribution and Detection)
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Open AccessArticle
New Deoxyisoaustamide Derivatives from the Coral-Derived Fungus Penicillium dimorphosporum KMM 4689
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(1), 32; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19010032 - 12 Jan 2021
Viewed by 473
Abstract
Seven new deoxyisoaustamide derivatives (17) together with known compounds (810) were isolated from the coral-derived fungus Penicillium dimorphosporum KMM 4689. Their structures were established using spectroscopic methods, X-ray diffraction analysis and by comparison with related [...] Read more.
Seven new deoxyisoaustamide derivatives (17) together with known compounds (810) were isolated from the coral-derived fungus Penicillium dimorphosporum KMM 4689. Their structures were established using spectroscopic methods, X-ray diffraction analysis and by comparison with related known compounds. The absolute configurations of some alkaloids were determined based on CD and NOESY data as well as biogenetic considerations. The cytotoxic and neuroprotective activities of some of the isolated compounds were examined and structure-activity relationships were pointed out. New deoxyisoaustamides 46 at concentration of 1 µM revealed a statistical increase of PQ(paraquat)-treated Neuro-2a cell viability by 30–39%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Compounds from the Far Eastern Organisms)
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Open AccessArticle
Specific Antiproliferative Properties of Proteinaceous Toxin Secretions from the Marine Annelid Eulalia sp. onto Ovarian Cancer Cells
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(1), 31; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19010031 - 12 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 558
Abstract
As Yondelis joins the ranks of approved anti-cancer drugs, the benefit from exploring the oceans’ biodiversity becomes clear. From marine toxins, relevant bioproducts can be obtained due to their potential to interfere with specific pathways. We explored the cytotoxicity of toxin-bearing secretions of [...] Read more.
As Yondelis joins the ranks of approved anti-cancer drugs, the benefit from exploring the oceans’ biodiversity becomes clear. From marine toxins, relevant bioproducts can be obtained due to their potential to interfere with specific pathways. We explored the cytotoxicity of toxin-bearing secretions of the polychaete Eulalia onto a battery of normal and cancer human cell lines and discovered that the cocktail of proteins is more toxic towards an ovarian cancer cell line (A2780). The secretions’ main proteins were identified by proteomics and transcriptomics: 14-3-3 protein, Hsp70, Rab3, Arylsulfatase B and serine protease, the latter two being known toxins. This mixture of toxins induces cell-cycle arrest at G2/M phase after 3h exposure in A2780 cells and extrinsic programmed cell death. These findings indicate that partial re-activation of the G2/M checkpoint, which is inactivated in many cancer cells, can be partly reversed by the toxic mixture. Protein–protein interaction networks partake in two cytotoxic effects: cell-cycle arrest with a link to RAB3C and RAF1; and lytic activity of arylsulfatases. The discovery of both mechanisms indicates that venomous mixtures may affect proliferating cells in a specific manner, highlighting the cocktails’ potential in the fine-tuning of anti-cancer therapeutics targeting cell cycle and protein homeostasis. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Fucoidan Structure and Its Impact on Glucose Metabolism: Implications for Diabetes and Cancer Therapy
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(1), 30; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19010030 - 11 Jan 2021
Viewed by 587
Abstract
Fucoidans are complex polysaccharides derived from brown seaweeds which consist of considerable proportions of L-fucose and other monosaccharides, and sulphated ester residues. The search for novel and natural bioproduct drugs (due to toxicity issues associated with chemotherapeutics) has led to the extensive study [...] Read more.
Fucoidans are complex polysaccharides derived from brown seaweeds which consist of considerable proportions of L-fucose and other monosaccharides, and sulphated ester residues. The search for novel and natural bioproduct drugs (due to toxicity issues associated with chemotherapeutics) has led to the extensive study of fucoidan due to reports of it having several bioactive characteristics. Among other fucoidan bioactivities, antidiabetic and anticancer properties have received the most research attention in the past decade. However, the elucidation of the fucoidan structure and its biological activity is still vague. In addition, research has suggested that there is a link between diabetes and cancer; however, limited data exist where dual chemotherapeutic efforts are elucidated. This review provides an overview of glucose metabolism, which is the central process involved in the progression of both diseases. We also highlight potential therapeutic targets and show the relevance of fucoidan and its derivatives as a candidate for both cancer and diabetes therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Marine Drugs in the Management of Metabolic Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Engineering Bafilomycin High-Producers by Manipulating Regulatory and Biosynthetic Genes in the Marine Bacterium Streptomyces lohii
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(1), 29; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19010029 - 11 Jan 2021
Viewed by 462
Abstract
Bafilomycin A1 is the representative compound of the plecomacrolide natural product family. This 16-membered ring plecomacrolide has potent antifungal and vacuolar H+-ATPase inhibitory activities. In our previous work, we identified a bafilomycin biosynthetic gene cluster (baf) from the [...] Read more.
Bafilomycin A1 is the representative compound of the plecomacrolide natural product family. This 16-membered ring plecomacrolide has potent antifungal and vacuolar H+-ATPase inhibitory activities. In our previous work, we identified a bafilomycin biosynthetic gene cluster (baf) from the marine bacterium Streptomyces lohii ATCC BAA-1276, wherein a luxR family regulatory gene orf1 and an afsR family regulatory gene bafG were revealed based on bioinformatics analysis. In this study, the positive regulatory roles of orf1 and bafG for bafilomycin biosynthesis are characterized through gene inactivation and overexpression. Compared to the wild-type S. lohii strain, the knockout of either orf1 or bafG completely abolished the production of bafilomycins. The overexpression of orf1 or bafG led to 1.3- and 0.5-fold increased production of bafilomycins, respectively. A genetically engineered S. lohii strain (SLO-08) with orf1 overexpression and inactivation of the biosynthetic genes orf2 and orf3, solely produced bafilomycin A1 with the titer of 535.1 ± 25.0 mg/L in an optimized fermentation medium in shaking flasks. This recombinant strain holds considerable application potential in large-scale production of bafilomycin A1 for new drug development. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Bioactive Lipids of Marine Microalga Chlorococcum sp. SABC 012504 with Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Thrombotic Activities
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(1), 28; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19010028 - 10 Jan 2021
Viewed by 668
Abstract
Microalgae are at the start of the food chain, and many are known producers of a significant amount of lipids with essential fatty acids. However, the bioactivity of microalgal lipids for anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic activities have rarely been investigated. Therefore, for a sustainable [...] Read more.
Microalgae are at the start of the food chain, and many are known producers of a significant amount of lipids with essential fatty acids. However, the bioactivity of microalgal lipids for anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic activities have rarely been investigated. Therefore, for a sustainable source of the above bioactive lipids, the present study was undertaken. The total lipids of microalga Chlorococcum sp., isolated from the Irish coast, were fractionated into neutral-, glyco-, and phospho-lipids, and were tested in vitro for their anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic activities. All tested lipid fractions showed strong anti-platelet-activating factor (PAF) and antithrombin activities in human platelets (half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values ranging ~25–200 μg of lipid) with the highest activities in glyco- and phospho-lipid fractions. The structural analysis of the bioactive lipid fraction-2 revealed the presence of specific sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerols (SQDG) bioactive molecules and the HexCer-t36:2 (t18:1/18:1 and 18:2/18:0) cerebrosides with a phytosphingosine (4-hydrosphinganine) base, while fraction-3 contained bioactive phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) molecules. These novel bioactive lipids of Chlorococcum sp. with putative health benefits may indicate that marine microalgae can be a sustainable alternative source for bioactive lipids production for food supplements and nutraceutical applications. However, further studies are required towards the commercial technology pathways development and biosafety analysis for the use of the microalga. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Functional Food Products - Cardiovascular Diseases 2021)
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Open AccessReview
Chemistry, Chemotaxonomy and Biological Activity of the Latrunculid Sponges (Order Poecilosclerida, Family Latrunculiidae)
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(1), 27; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19010027 - 09 Jan 2021
Viewed by 376
Abstract
Marine sponges are exceptionally prolific sources of natural products for the discovery and development of new drugs. Until now, sponges have contributed around 30% of all natural metabolites isolated from the marine environment. Family Latrunculiidae Topsent, 1922 (class Demospongiae Sollas, 1885, order Poecilosclerida [...] Read more.
Marine sponges are exceptionally prolific sources of natural products for the discovery and development of new drugs. Until now, sponges have contributed around 30% of all natural metabolites isolated from the marine environment. Family Latrunculiidae Topsent, 1922 (class Demospongiae Sollas, 1885, order Poecilosclerida Topsent, 1928) is a small sponge family comprising seven genera. Latrunculid sponges are recognized as the major reservoirs of diverse types of pyrroloiminoquinone-type alkaloids, with a myriad of biological activities, in particular, cytotoxicity, fuelling their exploration for anticancer drug discovery. Almost 100 pyrroloiminoquinone alkaloids and their structurally related compounds have been reported from the family Latrunculiidae. The systematics of latrunculid sponges has had a complex history, however it is now well understood. The pyrroloiminoquinone alkaloids have provided important chemotaxonomic characters for this sponge family. Latrunculid sponges have been reported to contain other types of metabolites, such as peptides (callipeltins), norditerpenes and norsesterpenes (trunculins) and macrolides (latrunculins), however, the sponges containing latrunculins and trunculins have been transferred to other sponge families. This review highlights a comprehensive literature survey spanning from the first chemical investigation of a New Zealand Latrunculia sp. in 1986 until August 2020, focusing on the chemical diversity and biological activities of secondary metabolites reported from the family Latrunculiidae. The biosynthetic (microbial) origin and the taxonomic significance of pyrroloiminoquinone related alkaloids are also discussed. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Effectiveness of Chitosan as a Dietary Supplement in Lowering Cholesterol in Murine Models: A Meta-Analysis
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(1), 26; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19010026 - 09 Jan 2021
Viewed by 321
Abstract
This study presents a meta-analysis of studies that investigate the effectiveness of chitosan administration on lifestyle-related disease in murine models. A total of 34 published studies were used to evaluate the effect of chitosan supplementation. The effect sizes for various items after chitosan [...] Read more.
This study presents a meta-analysis of studies that investigate the effectiveness of chitosan administration on lifestyle-related disease in murine models. A total of 34 published studies were used to evaluate the effect of chitosan supplementation. The effect sizes for various items after chitosan administration were evaluated using the standardized mean difference. Using Cochran’s Q test, the heterogeneity of effect sizes was assessed, after which a meta-ANOVA and -regression test was conducted to explain the heterogeneity of effect sizes using the mixed-effect model. Publication bias was performed using Egger’s linear regression test. Among the items evaluated, blood triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol showed the highest heterogeneity, respectively. Other than blood HDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglyceride in feces, most items evaluated showed a negative effect size with high significance in the fixed- and random-effect model (p < 0.0001). In the meta-ANOVA and -regression test, administering chitosan and resistant starch was revealed to be most effective in lowering body weight. In addition, chitosan supplementation proved to be an effective solution for serum TNF-α inhibition. In conclusion, chitosan has been shown to be somewhat useful in improving symptoms of lifestyle-related disease. Although there are some limitations in the results of this meta-analysis due to the limited number of animal experiments conducted, chitosan administration nevertheless shows promise in reducing the risk of cholesterol related metabolic disorder. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Rare Chromone Derivatives from the Marine-Derived Penicillium citrinum with Anti-Cancer and Anti-Inflammatory Activities
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(1), 25; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19010025 - 08 Jan 2021
Viewed by 391
Abstract
Three new and rare chromone derivatives, epiremisporine C (1), epiremisporine D (2), and epiremisporine E (3), were isolated from marine-derived Penicillium citrinum, together with four known compounds, epiremisporine B (4), penicitrinone A (5 [...] Read more.
Three new and rare chromone derivatives, epiremisporine C (1), epiremisporine D (2), and epiremisporine E (3), were isolated from marine-derived Penicillium citrinum, together with four known compounds, epiremisporine B (4), penicitrinone A (5), 8-hydroxy-1-methoxycarbonyl-6-methylxanthone (6), and isoconiochaetone C (7). Among the isolated compounds, compounds 25 significantly decreased fMLP-induced superoxide anion generation by human neutrophils, with IC50 values of 6.39 ± 0.40, 8.28 ± 0.29, 3.62 ± 0.61, and 2.67 ± 0.10 μM, respectively. Compounds 3 and 4 exhibited cytotoxic activities with IC50 values of 43.82 ± 6.33 and 32.29 ± 4.83 μM, respectively, against non-small lung cancer cell (A549), and Western blot assay confirmed that compounds 3 and 4 markedly induced apoptosis of A549 cells, through Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase 3 signaling cascades. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Molecules from Marine Microorganisms)
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Open AccessReview
Benefits under the Sea: The Role of Marine Compounds in Neurodegenerative Disorders
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(1), 24; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19010024 - 08 Jan 2021
Viewed by 575
Abstract
Marine habitats offer a rich reservoir of new bioactive compounds with great pharmaceutical potential; the variety of these molecules is unique, and its production is favored by the chemical and physical conditions of the sea. It is known that marine organisms can synthesize [...] Read more.
Marine habitats offer a rich reservoir of new bioactive compounds with great pharmaceutical potential; the variety of these molecules is unique, and its production is favored by the chemical and physical conditions of the sea. It is known that marine organisms can synthesize bioactive molecules to survive from atypical environmental conditions, such as oxidative stress, photodynamic damage, and extreme temperature. Recent evidence proposed a beneficial role of these compounds for human health. In particular, xanthines, bryostatin, and 11-dehydrosinulariolide displayed encouraging neuroprotective effects in neurodegenerative disorders. This review will focus on the most promising marine drugs’ neuroprotective potential for neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases. We will describe these marine compounds’ potential as adjuvant therapies for neurodegenerative diseases, based on their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Natural Products against Brain Diseases and Injuries)
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Open AccessArticle
DSP Toxin Distribution across Organs in Mice after Acute Oral Administration
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(1), 23; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19010023 - 08 Jan 2021
Viewed by 351
Abstract
Okadaic acid (OA) and its main structural analogs dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX1) and dinophysistoxin-2 (DTX2) are marine lipophilic phycotoxins distributed worldwide that can be accumulated by edible shellfish and can cause diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP). In order to study their toxicokinetics, mice were treated with [...] Read more.
Okadaic acid (OA) and its main structural analogs dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX1) and dinophysistoxin-2 (DTX2) are marine lipophilic phycotoxins distributed worldwide that can be accumulated by edible shellfish and can cause diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP). In order to study their toxicokinetics, mice were treated with different doses of OA, DTX1, or DTX2 and signs of toxicity were recorded up to 24 h. Toxin distribution in the main organs from the gastrointestinal tract was assessed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) analysis. Our results indicate a dose-dependency in gastrointestinal absorption of these toxins. Twenty-four hours post-administration, the highest concentration of toxin was detected in the stomach and, in descending order, in the large intestine, small intestine, and liver. There was also a different toxicokinetic pathway between OA, DTX1, and DTX2. When the same toxin doses are compared, more OA than DTX1 is detected in the small intestine. OA and DTX1 showed similar concentrations in the stomach, liver, and large intestine tissues, but the amount of DTX2 is much lower in all these organs, providing information on DSP toxicokinetics for human safety assessment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Synergistic Effect of Biosynthesized Silver Nanoparticles and Natural Phenolic Compounds against Drug-Resistant Fish Pathogens and Their Cytotoxicity: An In Vitro Study
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(1), 22; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19010022 - 08 Jan 2021
Viewed by 472
Abstract
Fish pathogens causing disease outbreaks represent a major threat to aquaculture industry and food security. The aim of the presented study is to develop safe and effective bioactive agents against two bacterial isolates: Aeromonas hydrophila and Pseudomonas fluorescens. We employed a broth [...] Read more.
Fish pathogens causing disease outbreaks represent a major threat to aquaculture industry and food security. The aim of the presented study is to develop safe and effective bioactive agents against two bacterial isolates: Aeromonas hydrophila and Pseudomonas fluorescens. We employed a broth microdilution method to investigate the antibacterial effect of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs); rutin, a natural flavonoid extracted from Ruta graveneoles; and heliomycin, a secondary metabolite produced by marine actinomycetes AB5, as monotherapeutic agents. Moreover, AgNPs in combination with rutin (AgNP + R) and heliomycin (AgNPs + H) were examined for their synergistic effect. The cytotoxic effect of individual bioactive compounds and in combination with AgNPs was investigated on epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) fish cell lines. Individual treatment of AgNPs, rutin, and heliomycin exhibited a dose-dependent antimicrobial activity against A. hydrophila and P. fluorescens. Rutin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) showed the lowest cytotoxicity when tested on EPC cell lines, while heliomycin MIC was highly cytotoxic. Combined subtherapeutic doses of AgNPs + R and AgNPs + H displayed additive and synergistic effects against A. hydrophila and P. fluorescens, respectively, with improved results and relative safety profile. The study findings demonstrate that a combination of AgNPs and natural bioactive compounds may represent novel therapeutics fighting fish pathogens potentially affecting the fish farming industry. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Spinochrome Identification and Quantification in Pacific Sea Urchin Shells, Coelomic Fluid and Eggs Using HPLC-DAD-MS
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(1), 21; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19010021 - 06 Jan 2021
Viewed by 337
Abstract
The high-performance liquid chromatography method coupled with diode array and mass spectrometric detector (HPLC-DAD-MS) method for quinonoid pigment identification and quantification in sea urchin samples was developed and validated. The composition and quantitative ratio of the quinonoid pigments of the shells of 16 [...] Read more.
The high-performance liquid chromatography method coupled with diode array and mass spectrometric detector (HPLC-DAD-MS) method for quinonoid pigment identification and quantification in sea urchin samples was developed and validated. The composition and quantitative ratio of the quinonoid pigments of the shells of 16 species of sea urchins, collected in the temperate (Sea of Japan) and tropical (South-China Sea) climatic zones of the Pacific Ocean over several years, were studied. The compositions of the quinonoid pigments of sea urchins Maretia planulata, Scaphechinus griseus, Laganum decagonale and Phyllacanthus imperialis were studied for the first time. A study of the composition of the quinonoid pigments of the coelomic fluid of ten species of sea urchins was conducted. The composition of quinonoid pigments of Echinarachnius parma jelly-like egg membrane, of Scaphechinus mirabilis developing embryos and pluteus, was reported for the first time. In the case of Scaphechinus mirabilis, we have shown that the compositions of pigment granules of the shell epidermis, coelomic fluid, egg membrane, developing embryos and pluteus are different, which should enable a fuller understanding of the functions of pigments at different stages of life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quinonoid Pigments of Echinoderms)
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Open AccessArticle
A Multi-Omics Characterization of the Natural Product Potential of Tropical Filamentous Marine Cyanobacteria
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(1), 20; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19010020 - 06 Jan 2021
Viewed by 879
Abstract
Microbial natural products are important for the understanding of microbial interactions, chemical defense and communication, and have also served as an inspirational source for numerous pharmaceutical drugs. Tropical marine cyanobacteria have been highlighted as a great source of new natural products, however, few [...] Read more.
Microbial natural products are important for the understanding of microbial interactions, chemical defense and communication, and have also served as an inspirational source for numerous pharmaceutical drugs. Tropical marine cyanobacteria have been highlighted as a great source of new natural products, however, few reports have appeared wherein a multi-omics approach has been used to study their natural products potential (i.e., reports are often focused on an individual natural product and its biosynthesis). This study focuses on describing the natural product genetic potential as well as the expressed natural product molecules in benthic tropical cyanobacteria. We collected from several sites around the world and sequenced the genomes of 24 tropical filamentous marine cyanobacteria. The informatics program antiSMASH was used to annotate the major classes of gene clusters. BiG-SCAPE phylum-wide analysis revealed the most promising strains for natural product discovery among these cyanobacteria. LCMS/MS-based metabolomics highlighted the most abundant molecules and molecular classes among 10 of these marine cyanobacterial samples. We observed that despite many genes encoding for peptidic natural products, peptides were not as abundant as lipids and lipopeptides in the chemical extracts. Our results highlight a number of highly interesting biosynthetic gene clusters for genome mining among these cyanobacterial samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Omics Profiling of Marine Environments for Drug Discovery)
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Open AccessArticle
Discovery of Antibiofilm Activity of Elasnin against Marine Biofilms and Its Application in the Marine Antifouling Coatings
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(1), 19; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19010019 - 05 Jan 2021
Viewed by 524
Abstract
Biofilms are surface-attached multicellular communities that play critical roles in inducing biofouling and biocorrosion in the marine environment. Given the serious economic losses and problems caused by biofouling and biocorrosion, effective biofilm control strategies are highly sought after. In a screening program of [...] Read more.
Biofilms are surface-attached multicellular communities that play critical roles in inducing biofouling and biocorrosion in the marine environment. Given the serious economic losses and problems caused by biofouling and biocorrosion, effective biofilm control strategies are highly sought after. In a screening program of antibiofilm compounds against marine biofilms, we discovered the potent biofilm inhibitory activity of elasnin. Elasnin effectively inhibited the biofilm formation of seven strains of bacteria isolated from marine biofilms. With high productivity, elasnin-based coatings were prepared in an easy and cost-effective way, which exhibited great performance in inhibiting the formation of multi-species biofilms and the attachment of large biofouling organisms in the marine environment. The 16S amplicon analysis and anti-larvae assay revealed that elasnin could prevent biofouling by the indirect impact of changed microbial composition of biofilms and direct inhibitory effect on larval settlement with low toxic effects. These findings indicated the potential application of elasnin in biofilm and biofouling control in the marine environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Natural Products with Antifouling Activity)
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Open AccessCommentary
Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids from Marine Resource
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(1), 18; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19010018 - 04 Jan 2021
Viewed by 581
Abstract
In the last 10 years, a great number of publications (both regular papers and reviews) have been published on the interesting molecules—mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs). Despite significant advances in the research of MAAs, current overviews in the recent publications involving MAA research still [...] Read more.
In the last 10 years, a great number of publications (both regular papers and reviews) have been published on the interesting molecules—mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs). Despite significant advances in the research of MAAs, current overviews in the recent publications involving MAA research still need reporting. The aim of this Special Issue is to join, as an interdisciplinary approach, the photochemical and photobiological aspects, with emphasis on new natural resources to obtain both algae and zooplankton MAAs, advances in methodology of extraction and chemical identification of new MAAs. Finally, this Special Issue reviews the bioactivities of MAAs including UVR screen, antioxidant, immunostimulant, growth factor, DNA protection, inhibition of collagenase, elastase and hyaluronidase, and anti-photoaging, among others, and their potential use as nutracosmeceutic molecules (i.e., oral and topic photoprotector). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids from Marine Resource)
Open AccessReview
Current Knowledge on Microviridin from Cyanobacteria
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(1), 17; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19010017 - 04 Jan 2021
Viewed by 556
Abstract
Cyanobacteria are a rich source of secondary metabolites with a vast biotechnological potential. These compounds have intrigued the scientific community due their uniqueness and diversity, which is guaranteed by a rich enzymatic apparatus. The ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs) are among [...] Read more.
Cyanobacteria are a rich source of secondary metabolites with a vast biotechnological potential. These compounds have intrigued the scientific community due their uniqueness and diversity, which is guaranteed by a rich enzymatic apparatus. The ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs) are among the most promising metabolite groups derived from cyanobacteria. They are interested in numerous biological and ecological processes, many of which are entirely unknown. Microviridins are among the most recognized class of ribosomal peptides formed by cyanobacteria. These oligopeptides are potent inhibitors of protease; thus, they can be used for drug development and the control of mosquitoes. They also play a key ecological role in the defense of cyanobacteria against microcrustaceans. The purpose of this review is to systematically identify the key characteristics of microviridins, including its chemical structure and biosynthesis, as well as its biotechnological and ecological significance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Molecules from Marine Microorganisms)
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Open AccessArticle
AhaP, A Quorum Quenching Acylase from Psychrobacter sp. M9-54-1 That Attenuates Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Vibrio coralliilyticus Virulence
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(1), 16; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19010016 - 01 Jan 2021
Viewed by 457
Abstract
Although Psychrobacter strain M9-54-1 had been previously isolated from the microbiota of holothurians and shown to degrade quorum sensing (QS) signal molecules C6 and C10-homoserine lactone (HSL), little was known about the gene responsible for this activity. In this study, we determined the [...] Read more.
Although Psychrobacter strain M9-54-1 had been previously isolated from the microbiota of holothurians and shown to degrade quorum sensing (QS) signal molecules C6 and C10-homoserine lactone (HSL), little was known about the gene responsible for this activity. In this study, we determined the whole genome sequence of this strain and found that the full 16S rRNA sequence shares 99.78–99.66% identity with Psychrobacter pulmonis CECT 5989T and P. faecalis ISO-46T. M9-54-1, evaluated using the agar well diffusion assay method, showed high quorum quenching (QQ) activity against a wide range of synthetic N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHLs) at 4, 15, and 28 °C. High-performance liquid chromatography-mass-spectrometry (HPLC-MS) confirmed that QQ activity was due to an AHL-acylase. The gene encoding for QQ activity in strain M9-54-1 was identified from its genome sequence whose gene product was named AhaP. Purified AhaP degraded substituted and unsubstituted AHLs from C4- to C14-HSL. Furthermore, heterologous expression of ahaP in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 reduced the expression of the QS-controlled gene lecA, encoding for a cytotoxic galactophilic lectin and swarming motility protein. Strain M9-54-1 also reduced brine shrimp mortality caused by Vibrio coralliilyticus VibC-Oc-193, showing potential as a biocontrol agent in aquaculture. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Marine-Derived Secondary Metabolites as Promising Epigenetic Bio-Compounds for Anticancer Therapy
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(1), 15; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19010015 - 31 Dec 2020
Viewed by 556
Abstract
Sessile organisms such as seaweeds, corals, and sponges continuously adapt to both abiotic and biotic components of the ecosystem. This extremely complex and dynamic process often results in different forms of competition to ensure the maintenance of an ecological niche suitable for survival. [...] Read more.
Sessile organisms such as seaweeds, corals, and sponges continuously adapt to both abiotic and biotic components of the ecosystem. This extremely complex and dynamic process often results in different forms of competition to ensure the maintenance of an ecological niche suitable for survival. A high percentage of marine species have evolved to synthesize biologically active molecules, termed secondary metabolites, as a defense mechanism against the external environment. These natural products and their derivatives may play modulatory roles in the epigenome and in disease-associated epigenetic machinery. Epigenetic modifications also represent a form of adaptation to the environment and confer a competitive advantage to marine species by mediating the production of complex chemical molecules with potential clinical implications. Bioactive compounds are able to interfere with epigenetic targets by regulating key transcriptional factors involved in the hallmarks of cancer through orchestrated molecular mechanisms, which also establish signaling interactions of the tumor microenvironment crucial to cancer phenotypes. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of secondary metabolites derived from marine organisms and their synthetic derivatives as epigenetic modulators, highlighting advantages and limitations, as well as potential strategies to improve cancer treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Natural Products as Anticancer Agents)
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