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Mar. Drugs, Volume 19, Issue 7 (July 2021) – 51 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): An extract of Astrosclera willeyana, a calcareous demosponge, was selected for chemical study since it inhibited the ubiquitin ligase activity of the immunomodulatory protein, Cbl-b. Six bromopyrrole alkaloids from the ageliferin family, along with four N-methyladenine-containing agelasine diterpenoids, were subsequently isolated and identified by spectroscopic means. All of the isolated compounds had Cbl-b inhibitory activities, and four had new structures. View this paper
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Article
Isolation, Structural Characterization and Antidiabetic Activity of New Diketopiperazine Alkaloids from Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Aspergillus sp. 16-5c
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(7), 402; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19070402 - 20 Jul 2021
Viewed by 521
Abstract
Six new DIKETOPIPERAZINE alkaloids aspergiamides A–F (16), together with ten known alkaloids (716), were isolated from the mangrove endophytic fungus Aspergillus sp. 16-5c. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated based on 1D/2D NMR [...] Read more.
Six new DIKETOPIPERAZINE alkaloids aspergiamides A–F (16), together with ten known alkaloids (716), were isolated from the mangrove endophytic fungus Aspergillus sp. 16-5c. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated based on 1D/2D NMR spectroscopic and HR-ESIMS data analyses. The absolute configurations of aspergiamides A-F were established based on the experimental and calculated ECD data. All the compounds were evaluated for the antidiabetic activity against α-glucosidase and PTP1B enzyme. The bioassay results disclosed compounds 1 and 9 exhibited significant α-glucosidase inhibitory with IC50 values of 18.2 and 7.6 μM, respectively; compounds 3, 10, 11, and 15 exhibited moderate α-glucosidase inhibition with IC50 values ranging from 40.7 to 83.9 μM; while no compounds showed obvious PTP1B enzyme inhibition activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Fungal Metabolites: Structures, Activities and Biosynthesis)
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Editorial
Nutraceuticals and Pharmaceuticals from Marine Fish and Invertebrates
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(7), 401; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19070401 - 20 Jul 2021
Viewed by 377
Abstract
The word nutraceutical is coined from two words, “nutrition” and “pharmaceutical”, describing natural sources of molecules or substances that have physiological benefit, and the ability to protect human health and well-being and prevent chronic diseases [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutraceuticals and Pharmaceuticals from Marine Fish and Invertebrates)
Article
Synthesis and Cytotoxicity Evaluation of Spirocyclic Bromotyrosine Clavatadine C Analogs
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(7), 400; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19070400 - 20 Jul 2021
Viewed by 502
Abstract
Marine-originated spirocyclic bromotyrosines are considered as promising scaffolds for new anticancer drugs. In a continuation of our research to develop potent and more selective anticancer compounds, we synthesized a library of 32 spirocyclic clavatadine analogs by replacing the agmatine, i.e., 4-(aminobutyl)guanidine, side chain [...] Read more.
Marine-originated spirocyclic bromotyrosines are considered as promising scaffolds for new anticancer drugs. In a continuation of our research to develop potent and more selective anticancer compounds, we synthesized a library of 32 spirocyclic clavatadine analogs by replacing the agmatine, i.e., 4-(aminobutyl)guanidine, side chain with different substituents. These compounds were tested for cytotoxicity against skin cancer using the human melanoma cell line (A-375) and normal human skin fibroblast cell line (Hs27). The highest cytotoxicity against the A-375 cell line was observed for dichloro compound 18 (CC50 0.4 ± 0.3 µM, selectivity index (SI) 2). The variation of selectivity ranged from SI 0.4 to reach 2.4 for the pyridin-2-yl derivative 29 and hydrazide analog of 2-picoline 37. The structure–activity relationships of the compounds in respect to cytotoxicity and selectivity toward cancer cell lines are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Natural Products as Anticancer Agents 2.0)
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Article
Identification and Biochemical Characterization of a Surfactant-Tolerant Chondroitinase VhChlABC from Vibrio hyugaensis LWW-1
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(7), 399; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19070399 - 18 Jul 2021
Viewed by 481
Abstract
Chondroitinases, catalyzing the degradation of chondroitin sulfate (CS) into oligosaccharides, not only play a crucial role in understanding the structure and function of CS, but also have been reported as a potential candidate drug for the treatment of high CS-related diseases. Here, a [...] Read more.
Chondroitinases, catalyzing the degradation of chondroitin sulfate (CS) into oligosaccharides, not only play a crucial role in understanding the structure and function of CS, but also have been reported as a potential candidate drug for the treatment of high CS-related diseases. Here, a marine bacterium Vibrio hyugaensis LWW-1 was isolated, and its genome was sequenced and annotated. A chondroitinase, VhChlABC, was found to belong to the second subfamily of polysaccharide lyase (PL) family 8. VhChlABC was recombinant expressed and characterized. It could specifically degrade CS-A, CS-B, and CS-C, and reached the maximum activity at pH 7.0 and 40 °C in the presence of 0.25 M NaCl. VhChlABC showed high stability within 8 h under 37 °C and within 2 h under 40 °C. VhChlABC was stable in a wide range of pH (5.0~10.6) at 4 °C. Unlike most chondroitinases, VhChlABC showed high surfactant tolerance, which might provide a good tool for removing extracellular CS proteoglycans (CSPGs) of lung cancer under the stress of pulmonary surfactant. VhChlABC completely degraded CS to disaccharide by the exolytic mode. This research expanded the research and application system of chondroitinases. Full article
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Article
Characterization of an α 4/7-Conotoxin LvIF from Conus lividus That Selectively Blocks α3β2 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(7), 398; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19070398 - 17 Jul 2021
Viewed by 646
Abstract
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), a member of pentameric ligand-gated ion channel transmembrane protein composed of five subunits, is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous system. The nAChRs are associated with various neurological diseases, including schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, epilepsy and [...] Read more.
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), a member of pentameric ligand-gated ion channel transmembrane protein composed of five subunits, is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous system. The nAChRs are associated with various neurological diseases, including schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, epilepsy and neuralgia. Receptors containing the α3 subunit are associated with analgesia, generating our interest in their role in pharmacological studies. In this study, α-conotoxin (α-CTx) LvIF was identified as a 16 amino acid peptide using a genomic DNA clone of Conus lividus (C. lividus). The mature LvIF with natural structure was synthesized by a two-step oxidation method. The blocking potency of α-CTx lvIF on nAChR was detected by a two-electrode voltage clamp. Our results showed that α-CTx LvIF was highly potent against rα3β2 and rα6/α3β2β3 nAChR subtypes, The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of α-CTx LvIF against rα3β2 and rα6/α3β2β3 nAChRs expressed in Xenopus oocytes were 8.9 nM and 14.4 nM, respectively. Furthermore, α-CTx LvIF exhibited no obvious inhibition on other nAChR subtypes. Meanwhile, we also conducted a competitive binding experiment between α-CTxs MII and LvIF, which showed that α-CTxs LvIF and MII bind with rα3β2 nAChR at the partial overlapping domain. These results indicate that the α-CTx LvIF has high potential as a new candidate tool for the studying of rα3β2 nAChR related neurophysiology and pharmacology. Full article
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Article
Metabolomic Characterization of a cf. Neolyngbya Cyanobacterium from the South China Sea Reveals Wenchangamide A, a Lipopeptide with In Vitro Apoptotic Potential in Colon Cancer Cells
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(7), 397; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19070397 - 16 Jul 2021
Viewed by 700
Abstract
Metabolomics can be used to study complex mixtures of natural products, or secondary metabolites, for many different purposes. One productive application of metabolomics that has emerged in recent years is the guiding direction for isolating molecules with structural novelty through analysis of untargeted [...] Read more.
Metabolomics can be used to study complex mixtures of natural products, or secondary metabolites, for many different purposes. One productive application of metabolomics that has emerged in recent years is the guiding direction for isolating molecules with structural novelty through analysis of untargeted LC-MS/MS data. The metabolomics-driven investigation and bioassay-guided fractionation of a biomass assemblage from the South China Sea dominated by a marine filamentous cyanobacteria, cf. Neolyngbya sp., has led to the discovery of a natural product in this study, wenchangamide A (1). Wenchangamide A was found to concentration-dependently cause fast-onset apoptosis in HCT116 human colon cancer cells in vitro (24 h IC50 = 38 μM). Untargeted metabolomics, by way of MS/MS molecular networking, was used further to generate a structural proposal for a new natural product analogue of 1, here coined wenchangamide B, which was present in the organic extract and bioactive sub-fractions of the biomass examined. The wenchangamides are of interest for anticancer drug discovery, and the characterization of these molecules will facilitate the future discovery of related natural products and development of synthetic analogues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Product Genomics and Metabolomics of Marine Bacteria)
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Article
Collagen-Containing Fish Sidestream-Derived Protein Hydrolysates Support Skin Repair via Chemokine Induction
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(7), 396; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19070396 - 15 Jul 2021
Viewed by 938
Abstract
Restoring homeostasis following tissue damage requires a dynamic and tightly orchestrated sequence of molecular and cellular events that ensure repair and healing. It is well established that nutrition directly affects skin homeostasis, while malnutrition causes impaired tissue healing. In this study, we utilized [...] Read more.
Restoring homeostasis following tissue damage requires a dynamic and tightly orchestrated sequence of molecular and cellular events that ensure repair and healing. It is well established that nutrition directly affects skin homeostasis, while malnutrition causes impaired tissue healing. In this study, we utilized fish sidestream-derived protein hydrolysates including fish collagen as dietary supplements, and investigated their effect on the skin repair process using a murine model of cutaneous wound healing. We explored potential differences in wound closure and histological morphology between diet groups, and analyzed the expression and production of factors that participate in different stages of the repair process. Dietary supplementation with fish sidestream-derived collagen alone (Collagen), or in combination with a protein hydrolysate derived from salmon heads (HSH), resulted in accelerated healing. Chemical analysis of the tested extracts revealed that Collagen had the highest protein content and that HSH contained the great amount of zinc, known to support immune responses. Indeed, tissues from mice fed with collagen-containing supplements exhibited an increase in the expression levels of chemokines, important for the recruitment of immune cells into the damaged wound region. Moreover, expression of a potent angiogenic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), was elevated followed by enhanced collagen deposition. Our findings suggest that a 5%-supplemented diet with marine collagen-enriched supplements promotes tissue repair in the model of cutaneous wound healing, proposing a novel health-promoting use of fish sidestreams. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Natural Products Modulating the Immune System)
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Article
Furobenzotropolones A, B and 3-Hydroxyepicoccone B with Antioxidative Activity from Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Epicoccum nigrum MLY-3
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(7), 395; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19070395 - 14 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 557
Abstract
Three new metabolites, furobenzotropolones A, B (12) with unusual benzene and dihydrofuran moieties and 3-hydroxyepicoccone B (3), together with seven known compounds (410) were obtained from the endophytic fungus Epicoccum nigrum MLY-3 isolated [...] Read more.
Three new metabolites, furobenzotropolones A, B (12) with unusual benzene and dihydrofuran moieties and 3-hydroxyepicoccone B (3), together with seven known compounds (410) were obtained from the endophytic fungus Epicoccum nigrum MLY-3 isolated from the fresh leaf of mangrove plant Bruguiear gymnorrhiza collected from Zhuhai. Their structures were assigned by the analysis of UV, IR, NMR, and mass spectroscopic data. Compound 1 was further confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiment using Cu Kα radiation. In antioxidant activities in vitro, compounds 2, 3, 5, and 8 showed promising DPPH· scavenging activity with IC50 values ranging from 14.7 to 29.3 µM. Compounds 2, 3, 5, 7, and 8 exhibited promising potent activity in scavenging ABTS· with IC50 values in the range of 18–29.2 µM, which was stronger than that of the positive control ascorbic acid (IC50 = 33.6 ± 0.8 µM). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Fungal Metabolites: Structures, Activities and Biosynthesis)
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Article
Antiproliferative and Antimicrobial Potentials of a Lectin from Aplysia kurodai (Sea Hare) Eggs
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(7), 394; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19070394 - 14 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1201
Abstract
In recent years, there has been considerable interest in lectins from marine invertebrates. In this study, the biological activities of a lectin protein isolated from the eggs of Sea hare (Aplysia kurodai) were evaluated. The 40 kDa Aplysia kurodai egg lectin [...] Read more.
In recent years, there has been considerable interest in lectins from marine invertebrates. In this study, the biological activities of a lectin protein isolated from the eggs of Sea hare (Aplysia kurodai) were evaluated. The 40 kDa Aplysia kurodai egg lectin (or AKL-40) binds to D-galacturonic acid and D-galactose sugars similar to previously purified isotypes with various molecular weights (32/30 and 16 kDa). The N-terminal sequence of AKL-40 was similar to other sea hare egg lectins. The lectin was shown to be moderately toxic to brine shrimp nauplii, with an LC50 value of 63.63 µg/mL. It agglutinated Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells and reduced their growth, up to 58.3% in vivo when injected into Swiss albino mice at a rate of 2 mg/kg/day. The morphology of these cells apparently changed due to AKL-40, while the expression of apoptosis-related genes (p53, Bax, and Bcl-XL) suggested a possible apoptotic pathway of cell death. AKL-40 also inhibited the growth of human erythroleukemia cells, probably via activating the MAPK/ERK pathway, but did not affect human B-lymphoma cells (Raji) or rat basophilic leukemia cells (RBL-1). In vitro, lectin suppressed the growth of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma and U937 cells by 37.9% and 31.8%, respectively. Along with strong antifungal activity against Talaromyces verruculosus, AKL showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella sonnei, and Bacillus cereus whereas the growth of Escherichia coli was not affected by the lectin. This study explores the antiproliferative and antimicrobial potentials of AKL as well as its involvement in embryo defense of sea hare. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Glycomics)
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Article
Monitoring the Emergence of Algal Toxins in Shellfish: First Report on Detection of Brevetoxins in French Mediterranean Mussels
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(7), 393; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19070393 - 14 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 541
Abstract
In France, four groups of lipophilic toxins are currently regulated: okadaic acid/dinophysistoxins, pectenotoxins, yessotoxins and azaspiracids. However, many other families of toxins exist, which can be emerging toxins. Emerging toxins include both toxins recently detected in a specific area of France but not [...] Read more.
In France, four groups of lipophilic toxins are currently regulated: okadaic acid/dinophysistoxins, pectenotoxins, yessotoxins and azaspiracids. However, many other families of toxins exist, which can be emerging toxins. Emerging toxins include both toxins recently detected in a specific area of France but not regulated yet (e.g., cyclic imines, ovatoxins) or toxins only detected outside of France (e.g., brevetoxins). To anticipate the introduction to France of these emerging toxins, a monitoring program called EMERGTOX was set up along the French coasts in 2018. The single-laboratory validation of this approach was performed according to the NF V03-110 guidelines by building an accuracy profile. Our specific, reliable and sensitive approach allowed us to detect brevetoxins (BTX-2 and/or BTX-3) in addition to the lipophilic toxins already regulated in France. Brevetoxins were detected for the first time in French Mediterranean mussels (Diana Lagoon, Corsica) in autumn 2018, and regularly every year since during the same seasons (autumn, winter). The maximum content found was 345 µg (BTX-2 + BTX-3)/kg in mussel digestive glands in November 2020. None were detected in oysters sampled at the same site. In addition, a retroactive analysis of preserved mussels demonstrated the presence of BTX-3 in mussels from the same site sampled in November 2015. The detection of BTX could be related to the presence in situ at the same period of four Karenia species and two raphidophytes, which all could be potential producers of these toxins. Further investigations are necessary to understand the origin of these toxins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Methods for Marine Toxins Detection and Quantification)
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Communication
Full-Length Transcriptome of Thalassiosira weissflogii as a Reference Resource and Mining of Chitin-Related Genes
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(7), 392; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19070392 - 13 Jul 2021
Viewed by 538
Abstract
β-Chitin produced by diatoms is expected to have significant economic and ecological value due to its structure, which consists of parallel chains of chitin, its properties and the high abundance of diatoms. Nevertheless, few studies have functionally characterised chitin-related genes in diatoms owing [...] Read more.
β-Chitin produced by diatoms is expected to have significant economic and ecological value due to its structure, which consists of parallel chains of chitin, its properties and the high abundance of diatoms. Nevertheless, few studies have functionally characterised chitin-related genes in diatoms owing to the lack of omics-based information. In this study, we first compared the chitin content of three representative Thalassiosira species. Cell wall glycosidic linkage analysis and chitin/chitosan staining assays showed that Thalassiosira weissflogii was an appropriate candidate chitin producer. A full-length (FL) transcriptome of T. weissflogii was obtained via PacBio sequencing. In total, the FL transcriptome comprised 23,362 annotated unigenes, 710 long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), 363 transcription factors (TFs), 3113 alternative splicing (AS) events and 3295 simple sequence repeats (SSRs). More specifically, 234 genes related to chitin metabolism were identified and the complete biosynthetic pathways of chitin and chitosan were explored. The information presented here will facilitate T. weissflogii molecular research and the exploitation of β-chitin-derived high-value enzymes and products. Full article
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Article
Blue Biotechnology: Computational Screening of Sarcophyton Cembranoid Diterpenes for SARS-CoV-2 Main Protease Inhibition
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(7), 391; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19070391 - 13 Jul 2021
Viewed by 780
Abstract
The coronavirus pandemic has affected more than 150 million people, while over 3.25 million people have died from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). As there are no established therapies for COVID-19 treatment, drugs that inhibit viral replication are a promising target; specifically, the [...] Read more.
The coronavirus pandemic has affected more than 150 million people, while over 3.25 million people have died from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). As there are no established therapies for COVID-19 treatment, drugs that inhibit viral replication are a promising target; specifically, the main protease (Mpro) that process CoV-encoded polyproteins serves as an Achilles heel for assembly of replication-transcription machinery as well as down-stream viral replication. In the search for potential antiviral drugs that target Mpro, a series of cembranoid diterpenes from the biologically active soft-coral genus Sarcophyton have been examined as SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibitors. Over 360 metabolites from the genus were screened using molecular docking calculations. Promising diterpenes were further characterized by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations based on molecular mechanics-generalized Born surface area (MM-GBSA) binding energy calculations. According to in silico calculations, five cembranoid diterpenes manifested adequate binding affinities as Mpro inhibitors with ΔGbinding < −33.0 kcal/mol. Binding energy and structural analyses of the most potent Sarcophyton inhibitor, bislatumlide A (340), was compared to darunavir, an HIV protease inhibitor that has been recently subjected to clinical-trial as an anti-COVID-19 drug. In silico analysis indicates that 340 has a higher binding affinity against Mpro than darunavir with ΔGbinding values of −43.8 and −34.8 kcal/mol, respectively throughout 100 ns MD simulations. Drug-likeness calculations revealed robust bioavailability and protein-protein interactions were identified for 340; biochemical signaling genes included ACE, MAPK14 and ESR1 as identified based on a STRING database. Pathway enrichment analysis combined with reactome mining revealed that 340 has the capability to re-modulate the p38 MAPK pathway hijacked by SARS-CoV-2 and antagonize injurious effects. These findings justify further in vivo and in vitro testing of 340 as an antiviral agent against SARS-CoV-2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from Coral Reef Organisms 2021)
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Article
Deep-Sea Coral Garden Invertebrates and Their Associated Fungi Are Genetic Resources for Chronic Disease Drug Discovery
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(7), 390; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19070390 - 13 Jul 2021
Viewed by 689
Abstract
Chronic diseases characterized by bone and cartilage loss are associated with a reduced ability of progenitor cells to regenerate new tissues in an inflammatory environment. A promising strategy to treat such diseases is based on tissue repair mediated by human mesenchymal stem cells [...] Read more.
Chronic diseases characterized by bone and cartilage loss are associated with a reduced ability of progenitor cells to regenerate new tissues in an inflammatory environment. A promising strategy to treat such diseases is based on tissue repair mediated by human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), but therapeutic outcomes are hindered by the absence of small molecules to efficiently modulate cell behaviour. Here, we applied a high-throughput drug screening technology to bioprospect a large library of extracts from Irish deep-sea organisms to induce hMSC differentiation toward musculoskeletal lineages and reduce inflammation of activated macrophages. The library included extracts from deep-sea corals, sponges and filamentous fungi representing a novel source of compounds for the targeted bioactivity. A validated hit rate of 3.4% was recorded from the invertebrate library, with cold water sea pens (octocoral order Pennatulacea), such as Kophobelemnon sp. and Anthoptilum sp., showing the most promising results in influencing stem cell differentiation toward osteogenic and chondrogenic lineages. Extracts obtained from deep-sea fungi showed no effects on stem cell differentiation, but a 6.8% hit rate in reducing the inflammation of activated macrophages. Our results demonstrate the potential of deep-sea organisms to synthetize pro-differentiation and immunomodulatory compounds that may represent potential drug development candidates to treat chronic musculoskeletal diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine-Inspired Regenerative Strategies for Chronic Diseases)
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Editorial
Marine Skeletal Biopolymers and Proteins and Their Biomedical Application
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(7), 389; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19070389 - 12 Jul 2021
Viewed by 439
Abstract
Skeletal biopolymers and proteins in marine organisms are present as complex mixtures and have great potential applications in the biomedical field [...] Full article
Article
The Marine-Derived Natural Product Epiloliolide Isolated from Sargassum horneri Regulates NLRP3 via PKA/CREB, Promoting Proliferation and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Human Periodontal Ligament Cells
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(7), 388; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19070388 - 09 Jul 2021
Viewed by 716
Abstract
Currently, periodontitis treatment relies on surgical operations, anti-inflammatory agents, or antibiotics. However, these treatments cause pain and side effects, resulting in a poor prognosis. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the impact of the compound epiloliolide isolated from Sargassum horneri on the recovery [...] Read more.
Currently, periodontitis treatment relies on surgical operations, anti-inflammatory agents, or antibiotics. However, these treatments cause pain and side effects, resulting in a poor prognosis. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the impact of the compound epiloliolide isolated from Sargassum horneri on the recovery of inflammatory inhibitors and loss of periodontal ligaments, which are essential treatment strategies for periodontitis. Here, human periodontal ligament cells stimulated with PG-LPS were treated with the compound epiloliolide, isolated from S. horneri. In the results of this study, epiloliolide proved the anti-inflammatory effect, cell proliferation capacity, and differentiation potential of periodontal ligament cells into osteoblasts, through the regulation of the PKA/CREB signaling pathway. Epiloliolide effectively increased the proliferation and migration of human periodontal ligament cells without cytotoxicity and suppressed the protein expression of proinflammatory mediators and cytokines, such as iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β, by downregulating NLRP3 activated by PG-LPS. Epiloliolide also upregulated the phosphorylation of PKA/CREB proteins, which play an important role in cell growth and proliferation. It was confirmed that the anti-inflammatory effect in PG-LPS-stimulated large cells was due to the regulation of PKA/CREB signaling. We suggest that epiloliolide could serve as a potential novel therapeutic agent for periodontitis by inhibiting inflammation and restoring the loss of periodontal tissue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wound Healing Potential of Marine Natural Products)
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Article
Pacific-Ciguatoxin-2 and Brevetoxin-1 Induce the Sensitization of Sensory Receptors Mediating Pain and Pruritus in Sensory Neurons
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(7), 387; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19070387 - 06 Jul 2021
Viewed by 602
Abstract
Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) and neurotoxic shellfish poisoning syndromes are induced by the consumption of seafood contaminated by ciguatoxins and brevetoxins. Both toxins cause sensory symptoms such as paresthesia, cold dysesthesia and painful disorders. An intense pruritus, which may become chronic, occurs also [...] Read more.
Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) and neurotoxic shellfish poisoning syndromes are induced by the consumption of seafood contaminated by ciguatoxins and brevetoxins. Both toxins cause sensory symptoms such as paresthesia, cold dysesthesia and painful disorders. An intense pruritus, which may become chronic, occurs also in CFP. No curative treatment is available and the pathophysiology is not fully elucidated. Here we conducted single-cell calcium video-imaging experiments in sensory neurons from newborn rats to study in vitro the ability of Pacific-ciguatoxin-2 (P-CTX-2) and brevetoxin-1 (PbTx-1) to sensitize receptors and ion channels, (i.e., to increase the percentage of responding cells and/or the response amplitude to their pharmacological agonists). In addition, we studied the neurotrophin release in sensory neurons co-cultured with keratinocytes after exposure to P-CTX-2. Our results show that P-CTX-2 induced the sensitization of TRPA1, TRPV4, PAR2, MrgprC, MrgprA and TTX-r NaV channels in sensory neurons. P-CTX-2 increased the release of nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the co-culture supernatant, suggesting that those neurotrophins could contribute to the sensitization of the aforementioned receptors and channels. Our results suggest the potential role of sensitization of sensory receptors/ion channels in the induction or persistence of sensory disturbances in CFP syndrome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Biotoxins)
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Article
Antarctic Thraustochytrids as Sources of Carotenoids and High-Value Fatty Acids
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(7), 386; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19070386 - 06 Jul 2021
Viewed by 656
Abstract
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and carotenoids are needed as human dietary supplements and are essential components in commercial feeds for the production of aquacultured seafood. Microorganisms such as thraustochytrids are potential natural sources of these compounds. This research reports on the [...] Read more.
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and carotenoids are needed as human dietary supplements and are essential components in commercial feeds for the production of aquacultured seafood. Microorganisms such as thraustochytrids are potential natural sources of these compounds. This research reports on the lipid and carotenoid production capacity of thraustochytrids that were isolated from coastal waters of Antarctica. Of the 22 isolates, 21 produced lipids containing EPA+DHA, and the amount of these fatty acids exceeded 20% of the total fatty acids in 12 isolates. Ten isolates were shown to produce carotenoids (27.4–63.9 μg/g dry biomass). The isolate RT2316-16, identified as Thraustochytrium sp., was the best producer of biomass (7.2 g/L in five days) rich in carotenoids (63.9 μg/g) and, therefore, became the focus of this investigation. The main carotenoids in RT2316-16 were β-carotene and canthaxanthin. The content of EPA+DHA in the total lipids (34 ± 3% w/w in dry biomass) depended on the stage of growth of RT2316-16. Lipid and carotenoid content of the biomass and its concentration could be enhanced by modifying the composition of the culture medium. The estimated genome size of RT2316-16 was 44 Mb. Of the 5656 genes predicted from the genome, 4559 were annotated. These included genes of most of the enzymes in the elongation and desaturation pathway of synthesis of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Carotenoid precursors in RT2316-16 were synthesized through the mevalonate pathway. A β-carotene synthase gene, with a different domain organization compared to the gene in other thraustochytrids, explained the carotenoid profile of RT2316-16. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Thraustochytrids: Biology, Chemical Ecology and Biotechnology)
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Article
A Complementary and Revised View on the N-Acylation of Chitosan with Hexanoyl Chloride
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(7), 385; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19070385 - 02 Jul 2021
Viewed by 577
Abstract
The modification of the biobased polymer chitosan is a broad and widely studied field. Herein, an insight into the hydrophobization of low-molecular-weight chitosan by substitution of amino functionalities with hexanoyl chloride is reported. Thereby, the influence of the pH of the reaction media [...] Read more.
The modification of the biobased polymer chitosan is a broad and widely studied field. Herein, an insight into the hydrophobization of low-molecular-weight chitosan by substitution of amino functionalities with hexanoyl chloride is reported. Thereby, the influence of the pH of the reaction media was investigated. Further, methods for the determination of the degree of substitution based on 1H-NMR, FTIR, and potentiometric titration were compared and discussed regarding their accuracy and precision. 1H-NMR was the most accurate method, while FTIR and the potentiometric titration, though precise and reproducible, underlie the influence of complete protonation and solubility issues. Additionally, the impact of the pH variation during the synthesis on the properties of the samples was investigated by Cd2+ sorption experiments. The adjusted pH values during the synthesis and, therefore, the obtained degrees of substitution possessed a strong impact on the adsorption properties of the final material. Full article
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Article
The Effect of Molecular Weight on the Antimicrobial Activity of Chitosan from Loligo opalescens for Food Packaging Applications
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(7), 384; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19070384 - 02 Jul 2021
Viewed by 630
Abstract
The growing requirement for sustainable processes has boosted the development of biodegradable plastic-based materials incorporating bioactive compounds obtained from waste, adding value to these products. Chitosan (Ch) is a biopolymer that can be obtained by deacetylation of chitin (found abundantly in waste from [...] Read more.
The growing requirement for sustainable processes has boosted the development of biodegradable plastic-based materials incorporating bioactive compounds obtained from waste, adding value to these products. Chitosan (Ch) is a biopolymer that can be obtained by deacetylation of chitin (found abundantly in waste from the fishery industry) and has valuable properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, antimicrobial activity, and easy film-forming ability. This study aimed to produce and characterize poly(lactic acid) (PLA) surfaces coated with β-chitosan and β-chitooligosaccharides from a Loligo opalescens pen with different molecular weights for application in the food industry. The PLA films with native and depolymerized Ch were functionalized through plasma oxygen treatment followed by dip-coating, and their physicochemical properties were assessed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, water contact angle, and scanning electron microscopy. Their antimicrobial properties were assessed against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas putida, where Ch-based surfaces reduced the number of biofilm viable, viable but nonculturable, and culturable cells by up to 73%, 74%, and 87%, respectively, compared to PLA. Biofilm growth inhibition was confirmed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Results suggest that Ch films of higher molecular weight had higher antibiofilm activity under the food storage conditions mimicked in this work, contributing simultaneously to the reuse of marine waste. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Natural Products with Antifouling Activity)
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Article
Physicochemical, Nutritional and In Vitro Antidiabetic Characterisation of Blue Whiting (Micromesistiuspoutassou) Protein Hydrolysates
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(7), 383; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19070383 - 02 Jul 2021
Viewed by 580
Abstract
Protein hydrolysates from low-value underutilised fish species are potential sources of high-quality dietary protein and health enhancing peptides. Six blue whiting soluble protein hydrolysates (BW-SPH-A_F), generated at industrial scale using different hydrolysis conditions, were assessed in terms of their protein equivalent content, amino [...] Read more.
Protein hydrolysates from low-value underutilised fish species are potential sources of high-quality dietary protein and health enhancing peptides. Six blue whiting soluble protein hydrolysates (BW-SPH-A_F), generated at industrial scale using different hydrolysis conditions, were assessed in terms of their protein equivalent content, amino acid profile and score and physicochemical properties in addition to their ability to inhibit dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) and stimulate the secretion of insulin from BRIN-BD11 cells. Furthermore, the effect of simulated gastrointestinal digestion (SGID) on the stability of the BW-SPHs and their associated in vitro antidiabetic activity was investigated. The BW-SPHs contained between 70–74% (w/w) protein and all essential and non-essential amino acids. All BW-SPHs mediated DPP-IV inhibitory (IC50: 2.12–2.90 mg protein/mL) and insulin secretory activity (2.5 mg/mL; 4.7 to 6.4-fold increase compared to the basal control (5.6 mM glucose alone)). All BW-SPHs were further hydrolysed during SGID. While the in vitro DPP-IV inhibitory and insulin secretory activity mediated by some BW-SPHs was reduced following SGID, the activity remained high. In general, the insulin secretory activity of the BW-SPHs were 4.5–5.4-fold higher than the basal control following SGID. The BW-SPHs generated herein provide potential for anti-diabetic related functional ingredients, whilst also enhancing environmental and commercial sustainability. Full article
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Article
Docosahexaenoic Acid Is Naturally Concentrated at the sn-2 Position in Triacylglycerols of the Australian Thraustochytrid Aurantiochytrium sp. Strain TC 20
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(7), 382; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19070382 - 01 Jul 2021
Viewed by 663
Abstract
The Labyrinthulomycetes or Labyrinthulea are a class of protists that produce a network of filaments that enable the cells to glide along and absorb nutrients. One of the main two Labyrinthulea groups is the thraustochytrids, which are becoming an increasingly recognised and commercially [...] Read more.
The Labyrinthulomycetes or Labyrinthulea are a class of protists that produce a network of filaments that enable the cells to glide along and absorb nutrients. One of the main two Labyrinthulea groups is the thraustochytrids, which are becoming an increasingly recognised and commercially used alternate source of long-chain (LC, ≥C20) omega-3 containing oils. This study demonstrates, to our knowledge for the first time, the regiospecificity of the triacylglycerol (TAG) fraction derived from Australian thraustochytrid Aurantiochytrium sp. strain TC 20 obtained using 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (13C NMR) analysis. The DHA present in the TC 20 TAG fraction was determined to be concentrated in the sn-2 position, with TAG (16:0/22:6/16:0) identified as the main species present. The sn-2 preference is similar to that found in salmon and tuna oil, and differs to seal oil containing largely sn-1,3 LC-PUFA. A higher concentration of sn-2 DHA occurred in the thraustochytrid TC 20 oil compared to that of tuna oil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Thraustochytrids: Biology, Chemical Ecology and Biotechnology)
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Article
Influence of Carbohydrate Additives on the Growth Rate of Microalgae Biomass with an Increased Carbohydrate Content
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(7), 381; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19070381 - 01 Jul 2021
Viewed by 599
Abstract
Our study focused on investigating the possibilities of controlling the accumulation of carbohydrates in certain microalgae species (Arthrospira platensis Gomont, Chlorella vulgaris Beijer, and Dunaliella salina Teod) to determine their potential in biofuel production (biohydrogen). It was found that after the introduction [...] Read more.
Our study focused on investigating the possibilities of controlling the accumulation of carbohydrates in certain microalgae species (Arthrospira platensis Gomont, Chlorella vulgaris Beijer, and Dunaliella salina Teod) to determine their potential in biofuel production (biohydrogen). It was found that after the introduction of carbohydrates (0.05 g⋅L−1) into the nutrient medium, the growth rate of the microalgae biomass increased, and the accumulation of carbohydrates reached 41.1%, 47.9%, and 31.7% for Arthrospira platensis, Chlorella vulgaris, and Dunaliella salina, respectively. Chlorella vulgaris had the highest total carbohydrate content (a mixture of glucose, fructose, sucrose, and maltose, 16.97%) among the studied microalgae, while for Arthrospira platensis and Dunaliella salina, the accumulation of total carbohydrates was 9.59% and 8.68%, respectively. Thus, the introduction of carbohydrates into the nutrient medium can stimulate their accumulation in the microalgae biomass, an application of biofuel production (biohydrogen). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Glycomics)
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Article
Electrophysiological Evaluation of Pacific Oyster (Crassostrea gigas) Sensitivity to Saxitoxin and Tetrodotoxin
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(7), 380; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19070380 - 30 Jun 2021
Viewed by 555
Abstract
Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) may bio-accumulate high levels of paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) during harmful algal blooms of the genus Alexandrium. These blooms regularly occur in coastal waters, affecting oyster health and marketability. The aim of our study was to [...] Read more.
Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) may bio-accumulate high levels of paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) during harmful algal blooms of the genus Alexandrium. These blooms regularly occur in coastal waters, affecting oyster health and marketability. The aim of our study was to analyse the PST-sensitivity of nerves of Pacific oysters in relation with toxin bio-accumulation. The results show that C. gigas nerves have micromolar range of saxitoxin (STX) sensitivity, thus providing intermediate STX sensitivity compared to other bivalve species. However, theses nerves were much less sensitive to tetrodotoxin. The STX-sensitivity of compound nerve action potential (CNAP) recorded from oysters experimentally fed with Alexandrium minutum (toxic-alga-exposed oysters), or Tisochrysis lutea, a non-toxic microalga (control oysters), revealed that oysters could be separated into STX-resistant and STX-sensitive categories, regardless of the diet. Moreover, the percentage of toxin-sensitive nerves was lower, and the STX concentration necessary to inhibit 50% of CNAP higher, in recently toxic-alga-exposed oysters than in control bivalves. However, no obvious correlation was observed between nerve sensitivity to STX and the STX content in oyster digestive glands. None of the nerves isolated from wild and farmed oysters was detected to be sensitive to tetrodotoxin. In conclusion, this study highlights the good potential of cerebrovisceral nerves of Pacific oysters for electrophysiological and pharmacological studies. In addition, this study shows, for the first time, that C. gigas nerves have micromolar range of STX sensitivity. The STX sensitivity decreases, at least temporary, upon recent oyster exposure to dinoflagellates producing PST under natural, but not experimental environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Biotoxins)
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Review
From Sea to Skin: Is There a Future for Natural Photoprotectants?
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(7), 379; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19070379 - 30 Jun 2021
Viewed by 961
Abstract
In the last few decades, the thinning of the ozone layer due to increased atmospheric pollution has exacerbated the negative effects of excessive exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR), and skin cancer has become a major public health concern. In order to prevent [...] Read more.
In the last few decades, the thinning of the ozone layer due to increased atmospheric pollution has exacerbated the negative effects of excessive exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR), and skin cancer has become a major public health concern. In order to prevent skin damage, public health advice mainly focuses on the use of sunscreens, along with wearing protective clothing and avoiding sun exposure during peak hours. Sunscreens present on the market are topical formulations that contain a number of different synthetic, organic, and inorganic UVR filters with different absorbance profiles, which, when combined, provide broad UVR spectrum protection. However, increased evidence suggests that some of these compounds cause subtle damage to marine ecosystems. One alternative may be the use of natural products that are produced in a wide range of marine species and are mainly thought to act as a defense against UVR-mediated damage. However, their potential for human photoprotection is largely under-investigated. In this review, attention has been placed on the molecular strategies adopted by marine organisms to counteract UVR-induced negative effects and we provide a broad portrayal of the recent literature concerning marine-derived natural products having potential as natural sunscreens/photoprotectants for human skin. Their chemical structure, UVR absorption properties, and their pleiotropic role as bioactive molecules are discussed. Most studies strongly suggest that these natural products could be promising for use in biocompatible sunscreens and may represent an alternative eco-friendly approach to protect humans against UV-induced skin damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antiphotoaging and Photoprotective Compounds from Marine Organisms)
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Article
Untargeted Metabolomics Approach for the Discovery of Environment-Related Pyran-2-Ones Chemodiversity in a Marine-Sourced Penicillium restrictum
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(7), 378; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19070378 - 29 Jun 2021
Viewed by 973
Abstract
Very little is known about chemical interactions between fungi and their mollusc host within marine environments. Here, we investigated the metabolome of a Penicillium restrictum MMS417 strain isolated from the blue mussel Mytilus edulis collected on the Loire estuary, France. Following the OSMAC [...] Read more.
Very little is known about chemical interactions between fungi and their mollusc host within marine environments. Here, we investigated the metabolome of a Penicillium restrictum MMS417 strain isolated from the blue mussel Mytilus edulis collected on the Loire estuary, France. Following the OSMAC approach with the use of 14 culture media, the effect of salinity and of a mussel-derived medium on the metabolic expression were analysed using HPLC-UV/DAD-HRMS/MS. An untargeted metabolomics study was performed using principal component analysis (PCA), orthogonal projection to latent structure discriminant analysis (O-PLSDA) and molecular networking (MN). It highlighted some compounds belonging to sterols, macrolides and pyran-2-ones, which were specifically induced in marine conditions. In particular, a high chemical diversity of pyran-2-ones was found to be related to the presence of mussel extract in the culture medium. Mass spectrometry (MS)- and UV-guided purification resulted in the isolation of five new natural fungal pyran-2-one derivatives—5,6-dihydro-6S-hydroxymethyl-4-methoxy-2H-pyran-2-one (1), (6S, 1’R, 2’S)-LL-P880β (3), 5,6-dihydro-4-methoxy-6S-(1’S, 2’S-dihydroxy pent-3’(E)-enyl)-2H-pyran-2-one (4), 4-methoxy-6-(1’R, 2’S-dihydroxy pent-3’(E)-enyl)-2H-pyran-2-one (6) and 4-methoxy-2H-pyran-2-one (7)—together with the known (6S, 1’S, 2’S)-LL-P880β (2), (1’R, 2’S)-LL-P880γ (5), 5,6-dihydro-4-methoxy-2H-pyran-2-one (8), (6S, 1’S, 2’R)-LL-P880β (9), (6S, 1’S)-pestalotin (10), 1’R-dehydropestalotin (11) and 6-pentyl-4-methoxy-2H-pyran-2-one (12) from the mussel-derived culture medium extract. The structures of 1-12 were determined by 1D- and 2D-MMR experiments as well as high-resolution tandem MS, ECD and DP4 calculations. Some of these compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic, antibacterial, antileishmanial and in-silico PTP1B inhibitory activities. These results illustrate the utility in using host-derived media for the discovery of new natural products. Full article
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Review
Muscle Protein Hydrolysates and Amino Acid Composition in Fish
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(7), 377; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19070377 - 29 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 547
Abstract
Fish muscle, which accounts for 15%–25% of the total protein in fish, is a desirable protein source. Their hydrolysate is in high demand nutritionally as a functional food and thus has high potential added value. The hydrolysate contains physiologically active amino acids and [...] Read more.
Fish muscle, which accounts for 15%–25% of the total protein in fish, is a desirable protein source. Their hydrolysate is in high demand nutritionally as a functional food and thus has high potential added value. The hydrolysate contains physiologically active amino acids and various essential nutrients, the contents of which depend on the source of protein, protease, hydrolysis method, hydrolysis conditions, and degree of hydrolysis. Therefore, it can be utilized for various industrial applications including use in nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals to help improve the health of humans. This review discusses muscle protein hydrolysates generated from the muscles of various fish species, as well as their amino acid composition, and highlights their functional properties and bioactivity. In addition, the role of the amino acid profile in regulating the biological and physiological activities, nutrition, and bitter taste of hydrolysates is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine-Derived Amino Acids in Microbiology and Phamarcology)
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Review
Therapeutic Potential of Hemoglobin Derived from the Marine Worm Arenicola marina (M101): A Literature Review of a Breakthrough Innovation
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(7), 376; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19070376 - 29 Jun 2021
Viewed by 522
Abstract
Oxygen (O2) is indispensable for aerobic respiration and cellular metabolism. In case of injury, reactive oxygen species are produced, causing oxidative stress, which triggers cell damaging chemical mediators leading to ischemic reperfusion injuries (IRI). Sufficient tissue oxygenation is necessary for optimal [...] Read more.
Oxygen (O2) is indispensable for aerobic respiration and cellular metabolism. In case of injury, reactive oxygen species are produced, causing oxidative stress, which triggers cell damaging chemical mediators leading to ischemic reperfusion injuries (IRI). Sufficient tissue oxygenation is necessary for optimal wound healing. In this context, several hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers have been developed and tested, especially as graft preservatives for transplant procedures. However, most of the commercially available O2 carriers increase oxidative stress and show some adverse effects. Interestingly, the hemoglobin derived from the marine lugworm Arenicola marina (M101) has been presented as an efficient therapeutic O2 carrier with potential anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, and antioxidant properties. Furthermore, it has demonstrated promise as a supplement to conventional organ preservatives by reducing IRI. This review summarizes the properties and various applications of M101. M101 is an innovative oxygen carrier with several beneficial therapeutic properties, and further research must be carried out to determine its efficacy in the management of different pathologies. Full article
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Article
Impact of Phlorotannin Extracts from Fucus vesiculosus on Human Gut Microbiota
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(7), 375; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19070375 - 29 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 693
Abstract
Recent studies indicate that plant polyphenols could be pointed as potential prebiotic candidates since they may interact with the gut microbiota, stimulating its growth and the production of metabolites. However, little is known about the fate of brown seaweeds’ phlorotannins during their passage [...] Read more.
Recent studies indicate that plant polyphenols could be pointed as potential prebiotic candidates since they may interact with the gut microbiota, stimulating its growth and the production of metabolites. However, little is known about the fate of brown seaweeds’ phlorotannins during their passage throughout the gastrointestinal tract. This work aimed to evaluate the stability and bioaccessibility of Fucus vesiculosus phlorotannins after being submitted to a simulated digestive process, as well as their possible modulatory effects on gut microbiota and short-chain fatty acids production following a fermentation procedure using fecal inoculates to mimic the conditions of the large intestine. The stability of phlorotannins throughout the gastrointestinal tract was reduced, with a bioaccessibility index between 2 and 14%. Moreover, slight alterations in the growth of certain commensal bacteria were noticed, with Enterococcus spp. being the most enhanced group. Likewise, F. vesiculosus phlorotannins displayed striking capacity to enhance the levels of propionate and butyrate, which are two important short-chain fatty acids known for their role in intestinal homeostasis. In summary, this work provides valuable information regarding the behavior of F. vesiculosus phlorotannins along the gastrointestinal tract, presenting clear evidence that these compounds can positively contribute to the maintenance of a healthy gastrointestinal condition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from Brown Algae)
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Review
Marine Alkaloids: Compounds with In Vivo Activity and Chemical Synthesis
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(7), 374; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19070374 - 28 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 687
Abstract
Marine alkaloids comprise a class of compounds with several nitrogenated structures that can be explored as potential natural bioactive compounds. The scientific interest in these compounds has been increasing in the last decades, and many studies have been published elucidating their chemical structure [...] Read more.
Marine alkaloids comprise a class of compounds with several nitrogenated structures that can be explored as potential natural bioactive compounds. The scientific interest in these compounds has been increasing in the last decades, and many studies have been published elucidating their chemical structure and biological effects in vitro. Following this trend, the number of in vivo studies reporting the health-related properties of marine alkaloids has been increasing and providing more information about the effects in complex organisms. Experiments with animals, especially mice and zebrafish, are revealing the potential health benefits against cancer development, cardiovascular diseases, seizures, Alzheimer’s disease, mental health disorders, inflammatory diseases, osteoporosis, cystic fibrosis, oxidative stress, human parasites, and microbial infections in vivo. Although major efforts are still necessary to increase the knowledge, especially about the translation value of the information obtained from in vivo experiments to clinical trials, marine alkaloids are promising candidates for further experiments in drug development. Full article
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Review
Exploitation of Marine Molecules to Manage Alzheimer’s Disease
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(7), 373; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19070373 - 28 Jun 2021
Viewed by 770
Abstract
Neurodegenerative diseases are sociosanitary challenges of today, as a result of increased average life expectancy, with Alzheimer’s disease being one of the most prevalent. This pathology is characterized by brain impairment linked to a neurodegenerative process culminating in cognitive decline and behavioral disorders. [...] Read more.
Neurodegenerative diseases are sociosanitary challenges of today, as a result of increased average life expectancy, with Alzheimer’s disease being one of the most prevalent. This pathology is characterized by brain impairment linked to a neurodegenerative process culminating in cognitive decline and behavioral disorders. Though the etiology of this pathology is still unknown, it is usually associated with the appearance of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. The most used prophylaxis relies on anticholinesterase drugs and NMDA receptor antagonists, whose main action is to relieve symptoms and not to treat or prevent the disease. Currently, the scientific community is gathering efforts to disclose new natural compounds effective against Alzheimer’s disease and other neurodegenerative pathologies. Marine natural products have been shown to be promising candidates, and some have been proven to exert a high neuroprotection effect, constituting a large reservoir of potential drugs and nutraceutical agents. The present article attempts to describe the processes of extraction and isolation of bioactive compounds derived from sponges, algae, marine bacteria, invertebrates, crustaceans, and tunicates as drug candidates against AD, with a focus on the success of pharmacological activity in the process of finding new and effective drug compounds. Full article
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