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Factors Influencing Early Feeding of Foods and Drinks Containing Free Sugars—A Birth Cohort Study

Australian Research Centre for Population Oral Health, School of Dentistry, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide 5005, Australia
Otago School of Oral Health, Dunedin 9016, New Zealand
School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide 5005, Australia
School of Dental Sciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, UK
College of Dentistry, University of Iowa, Iowa, IA 52242, USA
School of Public Health, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(10), 1270;
Received: 19 September 2017 / Revised: 15 October 2017 / Accepted: 18 October 2017 / Published: 23 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiology and Determinants of Dental Caries in Children)
Early feeding of free sugars to young children can increase the preference for sweetness and the risk of consuming a cariogenic diet high in free sugars later in life. This study aimed to investigate early life factors influencing early introduction of foods/drinks containing free sugars. Data from an ongoing population-based birth cohort study in Australia were used. Mothers of newborn children completed questionnaires at birth and subsequently at ages 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. The outcome was reported feeding (Yes/No) at age 6–9 months of common foods/drinks sources of free sugars (hereafter referred as foods/drinks with free sugars). Household income quartiles, mother’s sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption, and other maternal factors were exposure variables. Analysis was conducted progressively from bivariate to multivariable log-binomial regression with robust standard error estimation to calculate prevalence ratios (PR) of being fed foods/drinks with free sugars at an early age (by 6–9 months). Models for both complete cases and with multiple imputations (MI) for missing data were generated. Of 1479 mother/child dyads, 21% of children had been fed foods/drinks with free sugars. There was a strong income gradient and a significant positive association with maternal SSB consumption. In the complete-case model, income Q1 and Q2 had PRs of 1.9 (1.2–3.1) and 1.8 (1.2–2.6) against Q4, respectively. The PR for mothers ingesting SSB everyday was 1.6 (1.2–2.3). The PR for children who had been breastfed to at least three months was 0.6 (0.5–0.8). Similar findings were observed in the MI model. Household income at birth and maternal behaviours were significant determinants of early feeding of foods/drinks with free sugars. View Full-Text
Keywords: infant; free sugars; socioeconomic status infant; free sugars; socioeconomic status
MDPI and ACS Style

Ha, D.H.; Do, L.G.; Spencer, A.J.; Thomson, W.M.; Golley, R.K.; Rugg-Gunn, A.J.; Levy, S.M.; Scott, J.A. Factors Influencing Early Feeding of Foods and Drinks Containing Free Sugars—A Birth Cohort Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 1270.

AMA Style

Ha DH, Do LG, Spencer AJ, Thomson WM, Golley RK, Rugg-Gunn AJ, Levy SM, Scott JA. Factors Influencing Early Feeding of Foods and Drinks Containing Free Sugars—A Birth Cohort Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2017; 14(10):1270.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ha, Diep H., Loc G. Do, Andrew J. Spencer, William M. Thomson, Rebecca K. Golley, Andrew J. Rugg-Gunn, Steven M. Levy, and Jane A. Scott. 2017. "Factors Influencing Early Feeding of Foods and Drinks Containing Free Sugars—A Birth Cohort Study" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 14, no. 10: 1270.

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