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Article

Analysis of Historical Sources of Heavy Metals in Lake Taihu Based on the Positive Matrix Factorization Model

1
School of Geographic and Oceanographic Sciences, Nanjing University, 163 Xianlin Road, Nanjing 210023, Jiangsu, China
2
Key Laboratory of Coastal Zone Exploitation and Protection, Ministry of Land and Resources, Nanjing 210008, Jiangsu, China
3
School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, 163 Xianlin Road, Nanjing 210023, Jiangsu, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1540; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph15071540
Received: 15 May 2018 / Revised: 13 July 2018 / Accepted: 18 July 2018 / Published: 20 July 2018
Analysis of sediment grain sizes and heavy metal correlations in the western part of Lake Taihu shows that the grain size of the sediment is stable as a whole. With increasing depth, the grain size tends to decrease. Heavy metals such as Cr, Cd, Pd and Sr are strongly correlated and influence each other. Based on the positive matrix factorization (PMF) model, this study classified the origin of heavy metals in the sediments of western Lake Taihu into three major categories: Agricultural, industrial and geogenic. The contributions of the three heavy metal sources in each sample were analyzed and calculated. Overall, prior to the Chinese economic reform, the study area mainly practiced agriculture. The sources of heavy metals in the sediments were mostly of agricultural and geogenic origin, and remained relatively stable with contribution rates of 44.07 ± 11.84% (n = 30) and 35.67 ± 11.70% (n = 30), respectively. After the reform and opening up of China, as the economy experienced rapid development, industry and agriculture became the main sources of heavy metals in sediments, accounting for 56.99 ± 15.73% (n = 15) and 31.22 ± 14.31% (n = 15), respectively. The PMF model is convenient and efficient, and a good method to determine the origin of heavy metals in sediments. View Full-Text
Keywords: sediment; positive matrix factorization; heavy metal; source resolution sediment; positive matrix factorization; heavy metal; source resolution
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    Doi: ijerph-310518
    Description: Table S1. Operating parameters of ICP-MS (ELAN 9000, Perkin-Elmer SCIEX) for the determination of element concentrations. Table S2. Operating parameters of ICP-OES (Optima 5300DV, Perkin-Elmer SCIEX) for the determination of elemental concentrations Table S3. Uncertainty analysis of the model Table S4. Detection limit, Quantification limit and Recovery rate for the heavy metals Table S5. Factor Profiles (% of factor total)
MDPI and ACS Style

Li, Y.; Mei, L.; Zhou, S.; Jia, Z.; Wang, J.; Li, B.; Wang, C.; Wu, S. Analysis of Historical Sources of Heavy Metals in Lake Taihu Based on the Positive Matrix Factorization Model. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1540. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph15071540

AMA Style

Li Y, Mei L, Zhou S, Jia Z, Wang J, Li B, Wang C, Wu S. Analysis of Historical Sources of Heavy Metals in Lake Taihu Based on the Positive Matrix Factorization Model. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2018; 15(7):1540. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph15071540

Chicago/Turabian Style

Li, Yan, Liping Mei, Shenglu Zhou, Zhenyi Jia, Junxiao Wang, Baojie Li, Chunhui Wang, and Shaohua Wu. 2018. "Analysis of Historical Sources of Heavy Metals in Lake Taihu Based on the Positive Matrix Factorization Model" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 15, no. 7: 1540. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph15071540

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