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Article

Contaminations of Soil and Two Capsicum annuum Generations Irrigated by Reused Urban Wastewater Treated by Different Reed Beds

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Civil Engineering Research Group, School of Computing, Science and Engineering, The University of Salford, Salford M5 4WT, UK
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Department of Architectural Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, The University of Basrah, Al Basrah 61001, Iraq
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Division of Water Resources Engineering, Department of Building and Environmental Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, 22100 Lund, Sweden
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Department of Civil Engineering Science, School of Civil Engineering and the Built Environment, University of Johannesburg, Kingsway Campus, P.O. Box 524, Aukland Park 2006, Johannesburg, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(8), 1776; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph15081776
Received: 16 July 2018 / Revised: 16 August 2018 / Accepted: 17 August 2018 / Published: 18 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Environmental Engineering)
Background: In order to save potable water, this study aims to evaluate the contamination of soil and Capsicum annuum L. (chilli) watered with urban wastewater (sewage) pre-treated by various wetland systems. Methods: The appropriateness of wetland outflow for irrigation when applying reused wastewater with high contamination of minerals and pathogens was assessed. The impact of wastewaters pre-treated by various wetlands on soil and harvest was tested in terms of mineral and biological contamination risk. Results: The wetlands met the standards for irrigation water for most water quality variables. However, the thresholds for key water quality parameters were significantly (p < 0.05) exceeded. The highest values for total coliforms, ammonium-nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were 157,072 CFU/100 mL, 8.5 mg/L, 5.0 mg/L, and 7.0 mg/L, respectively. The harvest was moderately polluted only by zinc according to vegetable quality standards (threshold of 50 mg/kg). Zinc concentrations for Filters 2, 4, 6, 7 and 8 were 35.8, 60.6, 65.1, 65.5 and 53.2 mg/kg, respectively. No bacterial contamination was detected. Conclusions: Treatment of domestic wastewater applying constructed wetlands and subsequent recycling of the treated wastewater for irrigation of crops is a good substitute to the traditional application of drinking water for irrigation purposes. View Full-Text
Keywords: constructed wetland; cultivar; ecological engineering; irrigation water quality; sewage treatment; sustainable development; zinc constructed wetland; cultivar; ecological engineering; irrigation water quality; sewage treatment; sustainable development; zinc
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MDPI and ACS Style

Almuktar, S.A.A.A.N.; Abed, S.N.; Scholz, M. Contaminations of Soil and Two Capsicum annuum Generations Irrigated by Reused Urban Wastewater Treated by Different Reed Beds. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1776. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph15081776

AMA Style

Almuktar SAAAN, Abed SN, Scholz M. Contaminations of Soil and Two Capsicum annuum Generations Irrigated by Reused Urban Wastewater Treated by Different Reed Beds. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2018; 15(8):1776. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph15081776

Chicago/Turabian Style

Almuktar, Suhad A.A.A.N., Suhail N. Abed, and Miklas Scholz. 2018. "Contaminations of Soil and Two Capsicum annuum Generations Irrigated by Reused Urban Wastewater Treated by Different Reed Beds" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 15, no. 8: 1776. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph15081776

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