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Open AccessArticle

Lead in Air in Bangladesh: Exposure in a Rural Community with Elevated Blood Lead Concentrations among Young Children

1
Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
2
Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
3
Dhaka Community Hospital, Dhaka 1217, Bangladesh
4
Department of Neurology, Boston Children’s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(9), 1947; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph15091947
Received: 13 August 2018 / Revised: 28 August 2018 / Accepted: 30 August 2018 / Published: 6 September 2018
Previous evaluations of a birth cohort in the Munshiganj District of Bangladesh had found that over 85% of 397 children aged 2–3 years had blood lead concentrations above the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s reference level of 5 μg/dL. Studies in urban areas of Bangladesh have found elevated levels of lead in the air due to industries and remaining contamination from the historic use of leaded gasoline. Sources of lead in rural areas of Bangladesh remain unknown. We conducted air sampling in both residential and industrial sites in Munshiganj to determine whether children are exposed to elevated lead concentrations in the air and study the association between the children’s blood lead levels and sampled air lead concentrations. Residential and industrial air samples in Munshiganj were found to have elevated lead concentrations (mean 1.22 μg/m3) but were not found to be associated with the observed blood lead concentrations. Lead in air is an important environmental health exposure risk to the for children in Munshiganj, and further research may shed light on specific sources to inform exposure prevention and mitigation programs. View Full-Text
Keywords: lead; exposure; Bangladesh; air pollution lead; exposure; Bangladesh; air pollution
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MDPI and ACS Style

Woo, M.K.; Young, E.S.; Mostofa, M.G.; Afroz, S.; Sharif Ibne Hasan, M.O.; Quamruzzaman, Q.; Bellinger, D.C.; Christiani, D.C.; Mazumdar, M. Lead in Air in Bangladesh: Exposure in a Rural Community with Elevated Blood Lead Concentrations among Young Children. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1947. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph15091947

AMA Style

Woo MK, Young ES, Mostofa MG, Afroz S, Sharif Ibne Hasan MO, Quamruzzaman Q, Bellinger DC, Christiani DC, Mazumdar M. Lead in Air in Bangladesh: Exposure in a Rural Community with Elevated Blood Lead Concentrations among Young Children. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2018; 15(9):1947. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph15091947

Chicago/Turabian Style

Woo, May K.; Young, Elisabeth S.; Mostofa, Md G.; Afroz, Sakila; Sharif Ibne Hasan, Md O.; Quamruzzaman, Quazi; Bellinger, David C.; Christiani, David C.; Mazumdar, Maitreyi. 2018. "Lead in Air in Bangladesh: Exposure in a Rural Community with Elevated Blood Lead Concentrations among Young Children" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 15, no. 9: 1947. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph15091947

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