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Open AccessArticle

Health Risks Associated with Occupational Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution in Commercial Drivers: A Systematic Review

1
Unit of Teaching and Research in Occupational and Environmental Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Abomey-Calavi (UAC), Cotonou 03BP0490, Benin
2
Institut Régional de Santé Publique, University of Abomey Calavi, Cotonou 01 BP 526, Benin
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EcoHealth Chair, University of Abomey Calavi, Cotonou 01 BP 526, Benin
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Laboratoire de Biochimie et de Biologie Moléculaire, FAST/UAC, Cotonou 01 BP 526, Benin
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Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool L3 5QA, UK
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Department of Internal Medicine and the Hôpital Provincial General de Reference de Bukavu, Universite Catholique de Bukavu, South Kivu, Democratic Republic of the Congo
7
Centre for Environment and Health, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Laboratory of pneumology, KU Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(9), 2039; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15092039
Received: 12 August 2018 / Revised: 13 September 2018 / Accepted: 15 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
Ambient air pollution is a major global health problem and commercial drivers are particularly exposed to it. As no systematic assessment of the health risks associated with occupational exposure to ambient air pollution in this population had yet been carried out, we conducted a systematic review using a protocol-driven strategy. Papers published from inception to April 20, 2018 in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, African journals online, the Cochrane library, ISRCTN WHO ICTRP, and the Web of Science and Scopus databases were screened for inclusion by two independent reviewers. Original articles with at least an available abstract in English or French were included. The initial search retrieved 1454 published articles of which 20 articles were included. Three studies reported a significant difference in white blood cells (106/L) among commercial motorcyclists compared to rural inhabitants (5.041 ± 1.209 vs. 5.900 ± 1.213, p = 0.001), an increased risk of lung cancer (RR = 1.6, 95%CI 1.5–1.8) in bus drivers and an increased standardized mortality ratio (SMR) in bus drivers from Hodgkin’s lymphoma (SMR 2.17, 95%CI 1.19–3.87) compared to white-collar workers. Other studies also found that drivers had more oxidative DNA damage and chromosome breaks. Four papers failed to demonstrate that the drivers were more exposed to air pollution than the controls. Three other studies also reported no significant difference in lung function parameters and respiratory symptoms. The genetic polymorphisms of detoxifying enzymes were also not homogeneously distributed compared to the controls. There is some evidence that occupational exposure to ambient air pollution among commercial drivers is associated with adverse health outcomes, but the existing literature is limited, with few studies on small sample size, methodological weaknesses, and contradictory findings—thus, further research is recommended. View Full-Text
Keywords: air pollution; health risk; driving; automobile; bus; motorcycle air pollution; health risk; driving; automobile; bus; motorcycle
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lawin, H.; Ayi Fanou, L.; Hinson, A.V.; Stolbrink, M.; Houngbegnon, P.; Kedote, N.M.; Fayomi, B.; Kagima, J.; Katoto, P.; Ouendo, E.M.D.; Mortimer, K. Health Risks Associated with Occupational Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution in Commercial Drivers: A Systematic Review. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 2039. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph15092039

AMA Style

Lawin H, Ayi Fanou L, Hinson AV, Stolbrink M, Houngbegnon P, Kedote NM, Fayomi B, Kagima J, Katoto P, Ouendo EMD, Mortimer K. Health Risks Associated with Occupational Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution in Commercial Drivers: A Systematic Review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2018; 15(9):2039. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph15092039

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lawin, Herve; Ayi Fanou, Lucie; Hinson, Antoine V.; Stolbrink, Marie; Houngbegnon, Parfait; Kedote, Nonvignon M.; Fayomi, Benjamin; Kagima, Jacqueline; Katoto, Patrick; Ouendo, Edgard M.D.; Mortimer, Kevin. 2018. "Health Risks Associated with Occupational Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution in Commercial Drivers: A Systematic Review" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 15, no. 9: 2039. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph15092039

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