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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Passive Smoking Indicators in Italy: Does the Gross Domestic Product Matter?

Department of Public Health and Infectious Diseases, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome, Italy
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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(9), 2045; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15092045
Received: 7 August 2018 / Revised: 3 September 2018 / Accepted: 14 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Exposure and Effects)
Background: The aim of this study is to analyse the correlation between regional values of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and passive smoking in Italy. Methods: The outcome measures were smoking ban respect in public places, workplaces and at home, derived from the PASSI surveillance for the period 2011–2017. The explanatory variable was GDP per capita. The statistical analysis was carried out using bivariate and linear regression analyses, taking into consideration two different periods, Years 2011–2014 and 2014–2017. Results: GDP is showed to be positively correlated with smoking ban respect in public places (r = 0.779 p < 0.001; r = 0.723 p < 0.001 in the two periods, respectively), as well as smoking ban respect in the workplace (r = 0.662 p = 0.001; r = 0.603 p = 0.004) and no smoking at home adherence (r = 0.424 p = 0.056; r = 0.362 p = 0.107). In multiple linear regression GDP is significantly associated to smoking ban respect in public places (adjusted β = 0.730 p < 0.001; β = 0.698 p < 0.001 in the two periods, respectively), smoking ban in workplaces (adjusted β = 0.525 p = 0.020; β = 0.570 p = 0.009) and no smoking at home (adjusted β = 0.332 p = 0.070; β = 0.362 p = 0.052). Conclusions: Smoking ban is more respected in Regions with higher GDP. For a better health promotion, systematic vigilance and sanctions should be maintained and strengthened, particularly in regions with low compliance with smoking bans. View Full-Text
Keywords: passive smoking; Italy; Gross Domestic Product passive smoking; Italy; Gross Domestic Product
MDPI and ACS Style

La Torre, G.; Sestili, C.; Cocchiara, R.A.; Cianfanelli, S.; Lia, L.; Mannocci, A. Passive Smoking Indicators in Italy: Does the Gross Domestic Product Matter? Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 2045. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph15092045

AMA Style

La Torre G, Sestili C, Cocchiara RA, Cianfanelli S, Lia L, Mannocci A. Passive Smoking Indicators in Italy: Does the Gross Domestic Product Matter? International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2018; 15(9):2045. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph15092045

Chicago/Turabian Style

La Torre, Giuseppe; Sestili, Cristina; Cocchiara, Rosario A.; Cianfanelli, Sara; Lia, Lorenza; Mannocci, Alice. 2018. "Passive Smoking Indicators in Italy: Does the Gross Domestic Product Matter?" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 15, no. 9: 2045. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph15092045

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