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Article

Eight Elements in Soils from a Typical Light Industrial City, China: Spatial Distribution, Ecological Assessment, and the Source Apportionment

1
Research Center of Spatial Planning and Human-Environment System Simulation, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074, China
2
Department of Geography, School of Geography and Information Engineering, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074, China
3
School of Earth Sciences, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074, China
4
Wuhan Geological Survey Center of China Geological Survey, Wuhan 430205, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2591; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16142591
Received: 20 June 2019 / Revised: 10 July 2019 / Accepted: 17 July 2019 / Published: 20 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health in EIA/SEA)
Contamination with the eight elements, Hg, As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, and Cd, is a serious concern in Zhongshan, which is a typical light industrial city, China. 60 surface soil samples were collected to investigate the concentrations, spatial distribution, human health risk, and sources of these elements in the soils in Zhongshan. The concentrations of the eight elements were analyzed while using ordinary kriging analysis, pollution load index (PLI), potential ecological risk index (RI), human health risk, correlation analysis, and factor analysis. The mean concentrations of the tested elements, excluding Pb and As, were higher than the soil background values in the Pearl River Delta. The spatial distribution of the tested elements revealed a zonal distribution pattern and high values in several areas. The mean PLI and RI indicated slight and moderate risk levels. Health risk assessment demonstrates that both children and adults were more exposed to Cu than to Cr, As, and Cd. However, the associated carcinogenic risk is acceptable. Hg that originated from human activities; As, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Cd originated from industrial activities; and, Pb and Zn originated from transportation activities. Cd was the main pollutant in the study area and it was present at higher concentrations when compared with those of the other elements. Therefore, Zhongshan should encourage enterprises to conduct industrial transformation to control the ecological risk. View Full-Text
Keywords: geostatistical analysis; assessment; sources; Zhongshan City; Guangdong–Hong Kong–Macao Greater Bay Area geostatistical analysis; assessment; sources; Zhongshan City; Guangdong–Hong Kong–Macao Greater Bay Area
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pan, Y.; Peng, H.; Xie, S.; Zeng, M.; Huang, C. Eight Elements in Soils from a Typical Light Industrial City, China: Spatial Distribution, Ecological Assessment, and the Source Apportionment. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 2591. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16142591

AMA Style

Pan Y, Peng H, Xie S, Zeng M, Huang C. Eight Elements in Soils from a Typical Light Industrial City, China: Spatial Distribution, Ecological Assessment, and the Source Apportionment. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(14):2591. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16142591

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pan, Yujie, Hongxia Peng, Shuyun Xie, Min Zeng, and Changsheng Huang. 2019. "Eight Elements in Soils from a Typical Light Industrial City, China: Spatial Distribution, Ecological Assessment, and the Source Apportionment" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 16, no. 14: 2591. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16142591

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