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Article

Effects of Epiphytes and Depth on Seagrass Spectral Profiles: Case Study of Gulf St. Vincent, South Australia

1
Department of Environmental Engineering, National Cheng Kung Chung University, Tainan City 701, Taiwan
2
Global Water Quality Research Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan City 701, Taiwan
3
Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005, Australia
4
Australian Water Quality Centre, SA Water, Adelaide, South Australia 5000, Australia
5
College of Science and Engineering, Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia 5001, Australia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(15), 2701; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16152701
Received: 30 May 2019 / Revised: 20 July 2019 / Accepted: 21 July 2019 / Published: 29 July 2019
Seagrasses are a crucial indicator species of coastal marine ecosystems that provide substratum, shelter, and food for epiphytic algae, invertebrates, and fishes. More accurate mapping of seagrasses is essential for their survival as a long-lasting natural resource. Before reflectance spectra could properly be used as remote sensing endmembers, factors that may obscure the detection of reflectance signals must be assessed. The objectives in this study are to determine the influence of (1) epiphytes, (2) water depth, and (3) seagrass genus on the detection of reflectance spectral signals. The results show that epiphytes significantly dampen bottom-type reflectance throughout most of the visible light spectrum, excluding 670–679 nm; the depth does influence reflectance, with the detection of deeper seagrasses being easier, and as the depth increases, only Heterozostera increase in the exact “red edge” wavelength at which there is a rapid change in the near-infrared (NIR) spectrum. These findings helped improve the detection of seagrass endmembers during remote sensing, thereby helping protect the natural resource of seagrasses. View Full-Text
Keywords: seagrass; reflectance; epiphytes; growing depth; optically shallow coastal waters; remote sensing; benthic bottom type seagrass; reflectance; epiphytes; growing depth; optically shallow coastal waters; remote sensing; benthic bottom type
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hwang, C.; Chang, C.-H.; Burch, M.; Fernandes, M.; Kildea, T. Effects of Epiphytes and Depth on Seagrass Spectral Profiles: Case Study of Gulf St. Vincent, South Australia. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 2701. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16152701

AMA Style

Hwang C, Chang C-H, Burch M, Fernandes M, Kildea T. Effects of Epiphytes and Depth on Seagrass Spectral Profiles: Case Study of Gulf St. Vincent, South Australia. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(15):2701. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16152701

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hwang, Charnsmorn, Chih-Hua Chang, Michael Burch, Milena Fernandes, and Tim Kildea. 2019. "Effects of Epiphytes and Depth on Seagrass Spectral Profiles: Case Study of Gulf St. Vincent, South Australia" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 16, no. 15: 2701. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16152701

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