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Article

Cd, Cu, and Zn Accumulations Caused by Long-Term Fertilization in Greenhouse Soils and Their Potential Risk Assessment

1
Agro-Environmental Protection Institute/Key Laboratory for Environmental Factors Control of Agro-product Quality Safety, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Tianjin 300191, China
2
College of Natural Resources and Environment, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(15), 2805; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16152805
Received: 13 June 2019 / Revised: 30 July 2019 / Accepted: 30 July 2019 / Published: 6 August 2019
The intense management practices in greenhouse production may lead to heavy metal (HM) accumulations in soils. To determine the accumulation characteristics of HM and to evaluate possible HM sources in greenhouse soils, thirty typical greenhouse soil samples were collected in Shouguang District, Shandong Province, China. The results indicate that the Cd, Cu, and Zn concentrations are, respectively, 164.8%, 78.6%, and 123.9% higher than their background values. In the study area, Cd exhibits certain characteristics, such as wide variations in the proportion of its exchangeable form and the highest mobility factor and geo-accumulation index, which are indicative of its high bioavailability and environmental risk. In addition, there is a significant positive correlation between pairs of Cd, P, soil organic carbon, and cultivation age. Combined with principal component analysis, the results indicate the clear effects that agricultural activities have on Cd, Cu, and Zn accumulation. However, Cr, Ni, and Pb have a significant correlation with soil Fe and Al (hydr)-oxides, which indicates that these metals mainly originate from parent materials. This research indicated that long-term intensive fertilization (especially the application of chemical fertilizers and livestock manure) leads to Cd, Cu, and Zn accumulation in greenhouse soils in Shouguang. And the time required to reach the maximum permeable limit in agricultural soils for Cd, Cu, and Zn is 23, 51, and 42 years, respectively, based on their current increasing rates. View Full-Text
Keywords: heavy metal; greenhouse soils; chemical fraction; geo-accumulation index; principle component analysis heavy metal; greenhouse soils; chemical fraction; geo-accumulation index; principle component analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Liao, Z.; Chen, Y.; Ma, J.; Islam, M.S.; Weng, L.; Li, Y. Cd, Cu, and Zn Accumulations Caused by Long-Term Fertilization in Greenhouse Soils and Their Potential Risk Assessment. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 2805. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16152805

AMA Style

Liao Z, Chen Y, Ma J, Islam MS, Weng L, Li Y. Cd, Cu, and Zn Accumulations Caused by Long-Term Fertilization in Greenhouse Soils and Their Potential Risk Assessment. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(15):2805. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16152805

Chicago/Turabian Style

Liao, Zhongbin, Yali Chen, Jie Ma, Md. S. Islam, Liping Weng, and Yongtao Li. 2019. "Cd, Cu, and Zn Accumulations Caused by Long-Term Fertilization in Greenhouse Soils and Their Potential Risk Assessment" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 16, no. 15: 2805. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16152805

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