1.1. History of Violence in the “Northern Triangle” of Central America
1.2. Gang Violence in El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras
1.3. Health Impact of Violence on Youth
1.4. The Latin American Social Medicine and Collective Health (LASM-CH) Approach
2.1. Research Design and Participant Selection
2.2. Data Collection and Analysis
3.1. Meta-Theme 1: Lack of Health, Defined as Not Experiencing Peace Within the Family, the Community, and the Country
3.1.1. Cluster 1: Violence as a Common Occurrence
3.1.2. Cluster 2: Living in Fear and Insecurity
3.1.3. Cluster 3: Victimization
3.1.4. Cluster 4: Lack of State Protection and Services
3.2. Meta-Theme 2: Resilience
3.2.1. Cluster 1: Positive Future Outlook and Commitment to Education
3.2.2. Cluster 2: Transnational and Local Family Network Support
3.2.3. Cluster 3: Engagement in Community-Based Youth Groups
Study Limitations and Strengths
Conflicts of Interest
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|Meta-Theme 1: Lack of Health, Defined as not Experiencing Peace within the Family, the Community, and the Country|
Violence as a Common Occurrence
|Living in Fear and Insecurity||Victimization||Lack of State Protection and Services|
|-Massacred bodies on the streets|
-Rival gangs kill each other and other victims
-Girls and women disappeared or are recruited by gang members
|-Something bad will happen at any time|
- Scared to go anywhere especially outside my neighborhood
-Culture of silence, mistrust, and fear
|-Getting extorted and threatened by gang members|
-Getting robbed is the norm
|-No security from the state and the police|
-No health and social services
-Fragmented families and children are on their own
-Children ripe for recruitment
|Meta-Theme 2: Resilience|
Positive Future Outlook and Commitment to Education
|Transnational and Local Family Network Support||Engagement in Community-Based Youth Groups|
|-I want to do well in school to have a good future|
-I want my country to progress
|-Family members here and in the United States offer me social and emotional support|
-Family members in the United States offer me financial support for school expenses and for our family needs here
|-By actively participating in the youth group, I feel like I am contributing to my community|
-I get social support from my peers in the youth group
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