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Article

Distribution, Ecological Risk Assessment, and Bioavailability of Cadmium in Soil from Nansha, Pearl River Delta, China

1
School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074, China
2
Wuhan Geological Survey Center, China Geological Survey, Wuhan 430205, China
3
Changjiang Water Resources Commission of the Ministry of Water Resources, Wuhan 430010, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(19), 3637; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16193637
Received: 16 August 2019 / Revised: 21 September 2019 / Accepted: 25 September 2019 / Published: 27 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health in EIA/SEA)
Background: Cadmium (Cd) pollution poses a threat to human health. Examination of the spatial distribution of Cd in soils can be used to assess the risks posed to humans and the environment. Objective: This study determined the enrichment rules and factors influencing Cd pollution in Nansha, and evaluated the pollution characteristics and bioavailability of Cd in quaternary sediments through 7 deep soil profiles (0–200 cm), 4 boreholes, and 348 topsoil (0–20 cm) samples. Methods: The geo-accumulation index (Igeo) and the potential ecological risk index (Er) were used to assess ecological risk, and bioavailability was determined using multivariate, spatial distribution, and correlation matrix analyses. Results: From the Er, 52% of Nansha was classed as being at very high risk of Cd pollution; a further 36% was classed as dangerous. Cadmium was more abundant in clay soils than in sandy soils. Bioavailable Cd in quaternary sediments was significantly affected by the total Cd, and labile Cd accounted for more than half of the total Cd. Changes in pH mainly affected bioavailable Cd rather than total Cd, affecting the overall bioavailability of Cd. Conclusions: Nansha soils are commonly and seriously contaminated with Cd. An appropriate remediation treatment approach should be used to reduce Cd bioavailability. Furthermore, planting structures in farmland should be adjusted to avoid the impact of heavy metals on human health. View Full-Text
Keywords: heavy metal; spatial distribution; ecological risk assessment; cadmium bioavailability heavy metal; spatial distribution; ecological risk assessment; cadmium bioavailability
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, F.; Huang, C.; Chen, Z.; Bao, K. Distribution, Ecological Risk Assessment, and Bioavailability of Cadmium in Soil from Nansha, Pearl River Delta, China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 3637. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16193637

AMA Style

Wang F, Huang C, Chen Z, Bao K. Distribution, Ecological Risk Assessment, and Bioavailability of Cadmium in Soil from Nansha, Pearl River Delta, China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(19):3637. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16193637

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wang, Fangting, Changsheng Huang, Zhihua Chen, and Ke Bao. 2019. "Distribution, Ecological Risk Assessment, and Bioavailability of Cadmium in Soil from Nansha, Pearl River Delta, China" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 16, no. 19: 3637. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16193637

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