Smart pillboxes that remind patients to take medication may help avoid unintended non-adherence to medication regimens. To better understand the implementation potential of smart pillboxes among patients with chronic diseases, this study aimed to explore patients’ acceptability to use such devices and its associated factors. Five-hundred primary care patients aged 40 years or older were randomly recruited from a government-funded primary care clinic in Hong Kong. Patients were asked (i) if they needed to take medication daily, (ii) how many daily oral medications they needed to take on average, (iii) if they had ever missed a dose by accident, and (iv) if they were willing to use a smart pillbox for free to remind them to take medication. Out of the 344 participants included in the analysis who needed to take daily oral medication, 49.1% reported having previously missed a dose by accident, and 70.6% were willing to use a smart pillbox for free. A multiple logistic regression model found that male patients (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 0.59) and patients with hypertension (aOR: 0.56) were less likely to have previously missed a dose by accident. Patients who needed to take a greater number of daily medications (aOR: 1.16), who had previously missed a dose by accident (aOR: 2.44), with heart disease (aOR: 3.67) and with a high monthly income (aOR: 2.30) were more willing to use a smart pillbox, while older patients (aOR: 0.95) were less willing to do so. Primary care patients who reported missing a dose by accident were 2.4 times as likely to want to use a smart pillbox while those with heart disease were almost 4 times as likely to want to use a smart pillbox. Further studies such as those evaluating the willingness to pay for smart pillboxes and randomised control trials to evaluate the effectiveness of smart pillboxes in enhancing medication adherence should be conducted to provide more evidence about the implementation potential of such devices.
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