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Article

Heavy Metal in Paddy Soil and its Bioavailability in Rice Using In Vitro Digestion Model for Health Risk Assessment

1
Department of Food Science, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400 UPM, Selangor, Malaysia
2
Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400 UPM, Selangor, Malaysia
3
Laboratory of Food Safety and Food Integrity, Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Food Security, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400 UPM, Selangor, Malaysia
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Laboratory of Climate-Smart Food Crop Production, Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Food Security, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400 UPM, Selangor, Malaysia
5
Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400 UPM, Selangor, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(23), 4769; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16234769
Received: 10 October 2019 / Revised: 24 October 2019 / Accepted: 26 October 2019 / Published: 28 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heavy Metal Pollution and Health Risk Assessment)
Rice ingestion is one of the major pathways for heavy metal bioaccumulation in human. This study aimed to measure the heavy metal content of paddy soils and its bioavailability in paddy grain in order to assess the health risk. In total, 10 rice samples (50 g each) of paddy plants were harvested from the Selangor and Terengganu areas of Malaysia to assess the bioavailability of heavy metal (As, Cd, Cu, Cr, and Pb) using the in vitro digestion model of Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu. The bioavailability of heavy metal concentrations in rice samples were analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The findings showed the bioavailability of heavy metal concentrations was decreased in the order Cr > Cu > Pb > As > Cd. Chromium was found to be the most abundant bioavailable heavy metal in cooked rice, which was the result of its high content in paddy soil. Hazard Quotient values for the bioavailability of the heavy metal studied were less than one indicating no non-carcinogenic health risks for adults and children. Meanwhile, the total Lifetime Cancer Risk exceeded the acceptable value showing a potential of carcinogenic health risk for both adults and children. The application of in vitro digestion model in assessing bioavailability of heavy metal produces a more realistic estimation of human health risks exposure. However, a regular monitoring of pollution in Selangor and Terengganu areas is crucial since the exposure of heavy metals through rice consumption poses the potential non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health risk to the local residents. View Full-Text
Keywords: bioaccumulation; heavy metal; hazard quotient; lifetime cancer risk bioaccumulation; heavy metal; hazard quotient; lifetime cancer risk
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zulkafflee, N.S.; Mohd Redzuan, N.A.; Hanafi, Z.; Selamat, J.; Ismail, M.R.; Praveena, S.M.; Abdull Razis, A.F. Heavy Metal in Paddy Soil and its Bioavailability in Rice Using In Vitro Digestion Model for Health Risk Assessment. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 4769. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16234769

AMA Style

Zulkafflee NS, Mohd Redzuan NA, Hanafi Z, Selamat J, Ismail MR, Praveena SM, Abdull Razis AF. Heavy Metal in Paddy Soil and its Bioavailability in Rice Using In Vitro Digestion Model for Health Risk Assessment. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(23):4769. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16234769

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zulkafflee, Nur S., Nurul A. Mohd Redzuan, Zanjabila Hanafi, Jinap Selamat, Mohd R. Ismail, Sarva M. Praveena, and Ahmad F. Abdull Razis 2019. "Heavy Metal in Paddy Soil and its Bioavailability in Rice Using In Vitro Digestion Model for Health Risk Assessment" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 16, no. 23: 4769. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16234769

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