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Article

Effect of Long Working Hours on Depression and Mental Well-Being among Employees in Shanghai: The Role of Having Leisure Hobbies

Health Communication Institute, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(24), 4980; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16244980
Received: 14 September 2019 / Revised: 16 October 2019 / Accepted: 3 December 2019 / Published: 7 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Health Psychology)
Our aim is to examine the associations between long working hours and depression and mental well-being among the working population in Shanghai, as well as to identify the impact of having hobbies on these relationships. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Shanghai, with depression assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) scale and mental well-being assessed by the World Health Organization five-item Well-Being Index (WHO-5) scale. The phenomenon of long working hours (69.3%) was quite common among employees in Shanghai, and the rate of working over 60 h was 19.3%. Those who worked over 60 h had the highest prevalence of poorer mental health compared with individuals working ≤40 h per week. After adjustment in the logistic regression model, those who reported weekly working time over 60 h were 1.40 (95%CI: 1.03–1.90) and 1.66 (95%CI: 1.26–2.18) times more likely to have depression and poor mental well-being (PMWB), respectively. Adjusted ORs for having hobbies were 0.78 (95%CI: 0.62–0.97) and 0.62 (95%CI: 0.51–0.75), respectively. Meanwhile, having hobbies could significantly lower the mean score on the PHQ-9 and elevate the mean score on the WHO-5 in each working time group, with no interaction effect. Long working hours could have a significantly negative impact on workers’ psychological health. Importantly, having hobbies in their daily lives might help to mitigate the adverse effects of long working hours on workers’ depression and mental well-being. View Full-Text
Keywords: long working hours; having hobbies; depression; mental well-being long working hours; having hobbies; depression; mental well-being
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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, Z.; Dai, J.; Wu, N.; Jia, Y.; Gao, J.; Fu, H. Effect of Long Working Hours on Depression and Mental Well-Being among Employees in Shanghai: The Role of Having Leisure Hobbies. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 4980. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16244980

AMA Style

Li Z, Dai J, Wu N, Jia Y, Gao J, Fu H. Effect of Long Working Hours on Depression and Mental Well-Being among Employees in Shanghai: The Role of Having Leisure Hobbies. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(24):4980. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16244980

Chicago/Turabian Style

Li, Zan, Junming Dai, Ning Wu, Yingnan Jia, Junling Gao, and Hua Fu. 2019. "Effect of Long Working Hours on Depression and Mental Well-Being among Employees in Shanghai: The Role of Having Leisure Hobbies" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 16, no. 24: 4980. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16244980

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