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Article

Hydrophobic Organic Pollutants in Soils and Dusts at Electronic Waste Recycling Sites: Occurrence and Possible Impacts of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers

1
Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), Leiden University, P.O. Box 9518, 2300 RA, Leiden, The Netherlands
2
Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (Ministry of Education), School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China
3
Department of Chemistry, University of Ibadan, Ibadan 200282, Nigeria
4
Center for Safety of Substances and Products, National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), P.O. Box 1, 3720 BA, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(3), 360; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16030360
Received: 12 December 2018 / Revised: 24 January 2019 / Accepted: 25 January 2019 / Published: 28 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IJERPH: 15th Anniversary)
Concerns about the adverse consequences of informal electronic waste (e-waste) recycling is increasing, because e-waste contains some hazardous substances such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) which is used as flame retardants in electronics. There is dearth of information on the concentrations of PBDEs and the pattern of distribution at the various e-waste recycling sites in Nigeria. This study therefore measured the concentrations of 13 PBDE congeners, in top soils (0–10 cm) and in various dust samples from different e-waste recycling sites (burning, dismantling, repair). PBDE concentrations at e-waste sites were compared with the concentrations in samples from corresponding control sites in three study locations in Nigeria (Lagos, Ibadan, and Aba). There were significant differences in the level of PBDEs congeners between each of the e-waste recycling sites and the corresponding control sites. The levels of PBDEs at the e-waste recycling sites exceeded the levels at the controls sites by a factor of 100 s to 1000 s. In general, PBDE concentrations at the e-waste sites decreased with the intensity of the e-waste recycling activities: burning sites > dismantling sites > repair sites > control sites. Our results suggest that the informal e-waste recycling has negative impacts on the enviroment and human health. View Full-Text
Keywords: electronic waste; informal recycling; PBDEs; soil; dust; Nigeria electronic waste; informal recycling; PBDEs; soil; dust; Nigeria
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ohajinwa, C.M.; Van Bodegom, P.M.; Xie, Q.; Chen, J.; Vijver, M.G.; Osibanjo, O.O.; Peijnenburg, W.J.G.M. Hydrophobic Organic Pollutants in Soils and Dusts at Electronic Waste Recycling Sites: Occurrence and Possible Impacts of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 360. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16030360

AMA Style

Ohajinwa CM, Van Bodegom PM, Xie Q, Chen J, Vijver MG, Osibanjo OO, Peijnenburg WJGM. Hydrophobic Organic Pollutants in Soils and Dusts at Electronic Waste Recycling Sites: Occurrence and Possible Impacts of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(3):360. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16030360

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ohajinwa, Chimere M., Peter M. Van Bodegom, Qing Xie, Jingwen Chen, Martina G. Vijver, Oladele O. Osibanjo, and Willie J.G.M. Peijnenburg 2019. "Hydrophobic Organic Pollutants in Soils and Dusts at Electronic Waste Recycling Sites: Occurrence and Possible Impacts of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 16, no. 3: 360. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16030360

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