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Article

Technical Efficiency of Public and Private Hospitals in Beijing, China: A Comparative Study

by 1,2, 1,3, 1, 4 and 2,5,6,*
1
School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing 100083, China
2
China Center for Health Development Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100083, China
3
Department of Social and Behavioral Science, Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
4
Department of Family Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
5
Peking University Health Science Center-Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention Joint Center for Vaccine Economics, Peking University, Beijing 100083, China
6
Key Laboratory of Reproductive Health, National Health Commission of the People’s Republic of China, Peking University, Beijing 10083, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(1), 82; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17010082
Received: 16 October 2019 / Revised: 12 December 2019 / Accepted: 19 December 2019 / Published: 20 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers: Health Economics)
Objective: With the participation of private hospitals in the health system, improving hospital efficiency becomes more important. This study aimed to evaluate the technical efficiency of public and private hospitals in Beijing, China, and analyze the influencing factors of hospitals’ technical efficiency, and thus provide policy implications to improve the efficiency of public and private hospitals. Method: This study used a data set of 154–232 hospitals from “Beijing’s Health and Family Planning Statistical Yearbooks” in 2012–2017. The data envelopment analysis (DEA) model was employed to measure technical efficiency. The propensity score matching (PSM) method was used for matching “post-randomization” to directly compare the efficiency of public and private hospitals, and the Tobit regression was conducted to analyze the influencing factors of technical efficiency in public and private hospitals. Results: The technical efficiency, pure technical efficiency and scale efficiency of public hospitals were higher than those of private hospitals during 2012–2017. After matching propensity scores, although the scale efficiency of public hospitals remained higher than that of their private counterparts, the pure technical efficiency of public hospitals was lower than that of private hospitals. Panel Tobit regression indicated that many hospital characteristics such as service type, level, and governance body affected public hospitals’ efficiency, while only the geographical location had an impact on private hospitals’ efficiency. For public hospitals in Beijing, those with lower average outpatient and inpatient costs per capita had better performance in technical efficiency, and bed occupancy rate, annual visits per doctor, and the ratio of doctors to nurses also showed a positive sign with technical efficiency. For private hospitals, the average length of stay was negatively associated with technical efficiency, but the bed occupancy rate, annual visits per doctor, and average outpatient cost were positively associated with technical efficiency. Conclusions: To improve technical efficiency, public hospitals should focus on improving the management standards, including the rational structure of doctors and nurses as well as appropriate reduction of hospitalization expenses. Private hospitals should expand their scale with proper restructuring, mergers, and acquisitions, and pay special attention to shortening the average length of stay and increasing the bed occupancy rate. View Full-Text
Keywords: technical efficiency; data envelopment analysis; public hospital; private hospital; China technical efficiency; data envelopment analysis; public hospital; private hospital; China
MDPI and ACS Style

Jing, R.; Xu, T.; Lai, X.; Mahmoudi, E.; Fang, H. Technical Efficiency of Public and Private Hospitals in Beijing, China: A Comparative Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 82. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17010082

AMA Style

Jing R, Xu T, Lai X, Mahmoudi E, Fang H. Technical Efficiency of Public and Private Hospitals in Beijing, China: A Comparative Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(1):82. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17010082

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jing, Rize, Tingting Xu, Xiaozhen Lai, Elham Mahmoudi, and Hai Fang. 2020. "Technical Efficiency of Public and Private Hospitals in Beijing, China: A Comparative Study" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 1: 82. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17010082

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