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Article

Prevalence and Clinical Picture of Sleep Paralysis in a Polish Student Sample

1
Ist Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Early Intervention, Medical University of Lublin, 20-059 Lublin, Poland
2
Department of Clinical Neuropsychiatry, Medical University of Lublin, 20-059 Lublin, Poland
3
Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit St, Boston, MA 02114, USA
4
Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
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Locum Pharmacy for Well and Lloyds in Berkshire, Devon, Dorset, Hampshire, Oxfordshire, West Sussex, Wilthshire RG30 2BT, UK
6
Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute and Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(10), 3529; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17103529
Received: 25 April 2020 / Revised: 13 May 2020 / Accepted: 14 May 2020 / Published: 18 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ingredients for a Sustainable Wholesome Network in Mental Health)
Sleep paralysis (SP) is a psychobiological phenomenon caused by temporary desynchrony in the architecture of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. It affects approximately 7.6% of the general population during their lifetime. The aim of this study was to assess (1) the prevalence of SP among Polish students in Lublin (n = 439) using self-reported online surveys, (2) the frequency of SP-related somatic and psychopathologic symptoms, and (3) the factors potentially affecting the occurrence of symptoms among people experiencing SP. We found that the incidence of SP in the Polish student population was slightly higher (32%) than the average prevalence found in other student populations (28.3%). The SP clinical picture was dominated by somatic symptomatology: 94% of respondents reported somatic symptoms (most commonly tachycardia, 76%), 93% reported fear (most commonly fear of death, 46%), and 66% reported hallucinations (most commonly visual hallucinations, 37%). The number of SP episodes was related to sleep duration and supine position during sleep. The severity of somatic symptoms correlated with lifestyle variables and anxiety symptomatology. Our study shows that a significant proportion of students experience recurrent SP and that this phenomenon is associated with fear and physical discomfort. The scale of the phenomenon requires a deeper analysis. View Full-Text
Keywords: sleep paralysis; psychopathologic symptoms; anxiety; parasomnia; sleep disorder; PTSD6; fear sleep paralysis; psychopathologic symptoms; anxiety; parasomnia; sleep disorder; PTSD6; fear
MDPI and ACS Style

Wróbel-Knybel, P.; Karakuła-Juchnowicz, H.; Flis, M.; Rog, J.; Hinton, D.E.; Boguta, P.; Jalal, B. Prevalence and Clinical Picture of Sleep Paralysis in a Polish Student Sample. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 3529. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17103529

AMA Style

Wróbel-Knybel P, Karakuła-Juchnowicz H, Flis M, Rog J, Hinton DE, Boguta P, Jalal B. Prevalence and Clinical Picture of Sleep Paralysis in a Polish Student Sample. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(10):3529. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17103529

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wróbel-Knybel, Paulina, Hanna Karakuła-Juchnowicz, Michał Flis, Joanna Rog, Devon E. Hinton, Piotr Boguta, and Baland Jalal. 2020. "Prevalence and Clinical Picture of Sleep Paralysis in a Polish Student Sample" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 10: 3529. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17103529

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