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Article

Mechanized and Optimized Configuration Pattern of Crop-Mulberry Systems for Controlling Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution on Sloping Farmland in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China

by 1,2, 3,4, 3,4, 2,3,4, 1,2,* and 2,3,4,*
1
School of Geographical Sciences, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China
2
State Cultivation Base of Eco-agriculture for Southwest Mountainous Land, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China
3
College of resources and environment, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China
4
Key Laboratory of Arable Land Conservation (Southwestern China), Ministry of Agriculture, Chongqing 400715, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(10), 3599; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17103599
Received: 17 April 2020 / Revised: 14 May 2020 / Accepted: 16 May 2020 / Published: 20 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Innovation in the Agri-Food Sector)
High-intensity utilization of sloping farmland causes serious soil erosion and agricultural non-point source pollution (AGNSP) in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA). Crop-mulberry systems are important agroforestry systems for controlling soil, water, and nutrient losses. However, there are many different mulberry hedgerow planting patterns in the TGRA. In this study, soil structure, nutrient buildup, and runoff nutrient loss were observed in field runoff plots with five configurations: P1 (two longitudinal mulberry hedgerows), P2 (two mulberry contour hedgerows), P3 (three mulberry contour hedgerows), P4 (mulberry hedgerow border), and P5 (mulberry hedgerow border and one mulberry contour hedgerow), as well as a control (CT; no mulberry hedgerows). P1 had the smallest percentage of aggregate destruction (18.8%) and largest mean weight diameter (4.48 mm). P5 led to the greatest accumulation of ammonium nitrogen (NH4+–N) and total phosphorus (TP) (13.4 kg ha−1 and 1444.5 kg ha−1 on average, respectively), while P4 led to the greatest accumulation of available phosphorus (AP), nitrate nitrogen (NO3–N), and total nitrogen (TN) (114.0, 14.9, and 1694.1 kg ha−1, respectively). P5 was best at preventing soil erosion, with the smallest average annual runoff and sediment loss of 112.2 m3 ha−1 and 0.06 t ha−1, respectively, which were over 72.4% and 87.4% lower than those in CT, respectively. P5 and P4 intercepted the most N in runoff, with average NH4+–N, NO3–N, particulate N, and TN losses of approximately 0.09, 0.07, 0.41, and 0.58 kg ha−1, respectively, which were 49.7%, 76.2%, 71.3%, and 69.9% lower than those in CT, respectively. P5 intercepted the most P in runoff, with average TP and total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) losses of 0.09 and 0.04 kg ha−1, respectively, which were 77.5% and 70.4% lower than those in CT, respectively. Therefore, the pattern with one mulberry hedgerow border and one mulberry contour hedgerow (P5) best controlled AGNSP, followed by that with only a mulberry hedgerow border (P4). View Full-Text
Keywords: agricultural non-point source pollution; sloping farmland; crop-mulberry system; optimized pattern agricultural non-point source pollution; sloping farmland; crop-mulberry system; optimized pattern
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhong, S.; Han, Z.; Li, J.; Xie, D.; Yang, Q.; Ni, J. Mechanized and Optimized Configuration Pattern of Crop-Mulberry Systems for Controlling Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution on Sloping Farmland in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 3599. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17103599

AMA Style

Zhong S, Han Z, Li J, Xie D, Yang Q, Ni J. Mechanized and Optimized Configuration Pattern of Crop-Mulberry Systems for Controlling Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution on Sloping Farmland in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(10):3599. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17103599

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhong, Shouqin, Zhen Han, Jiangwen Li, Deti Xie, Qingyuan Yang, and Jiupai Ni. 2020. "Mechanized and Optimized Configuration Pattern of Crop-Mulberry Systems for Controlling Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution on Sloping Farmland in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 10: 3599. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17103599

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