Next Article in Journal
Social Support, Perceived Stress, Socio-Demographic Factors and Relationship Quality among Polish Mothers of Prematurely Born Children
Next Article in Special Issue
The Impact of COVID-19 on Physical Activity Behavior and Well-Being of Canadians
Previous Article in Journal
Analysis of Well-Being and Anxiety among University Students
Previous Article in Special Issue
Effect of Different Running Exercise Modalities on Post-Exercise Oxidative Stress Markers in Trained Athletes
Article

Pacing in World-Class Age Group Swimmers in 100 and 200 m Freestyle, Backstroke, Breaststroke, and Butterfly

1
Balgrist University Hospital, 8008 Zurich, Switzerland
2
Bouve College of Health Sciences, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115, USA
3
Programa de Pós-Graduação Stricto Sensu em Educação Física, Universidade Católica de Brasília, Brasília-DF 72445-020, Brazil
4
Exercise Physiology Laboratory, 18450 Nikaia, Greece
5
School of Health and Caring Sciences, University of West Attica, 12243 Athens, Greece
6
Institute of Primary Care, University Hospital Zurich, 8091 Zurich, Switzerland
7
Medbase St. Gallen Am Vadianplatz, 9001 St. Gallen, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(11), 3875; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17113875
Received: 25 April 2020 / Revised: 25 May 2020 / Accepted: 26 May 2020 / Published: 30 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sports and Health)
Pacing in swimming has been investigated in pool swimming for elite-standard and age group freestyle swimmers, but little is known about pacing in age group swimmers competing at world class level in backstroke, breaststroke, and butterfly. The aim of this study was to investigate pacing for age group swimmers competing at world class level in 100 and 200 m in the four single disciplines (freestyle, backstroke, breaststroke and butterfly). Data on 18,187 unique finishers competing in four FINA Master World Championships between 2014 and 2019 were analyzed. The sample included 3334 women and 14,853 men. Swimming speed decreased with increasing age (p < 0.05). Freestyle was the fastest and breaststroke the slowest (p < 0.05) stroke. Women and men were faster in 100 m (p < 0.05) than in 200 m. Backstroke was the stroke with the lowest and butterfly with the highest coefficient of variation in swimming speed. One hundred meters had a higher coefficient of variation in swimming speed than breaststroke (p < 0.05). For 100 m, swimming speed decreased for all strokes and all age groups during the second lap. For 200 m, swimming speed was the fastest for all strokes and all age groups during the first lap. In summary, the FINA World Masters Championships presented the unique characteristic that, when all competitors were considered, (i) swimming speed decreased with increasing age, (ii) women and men were faster in 100 m than in 200 m, (iii) freestyle was the fastest stroke and (iv) the largest increase in swimming time for 100 m all strokes and all age groups occurred during the second (out of two) lap and for 200 m, swimming speed was the fastest for all strokes and age groups during the first lap. These findings should help coaches to develop age- and event-tailored pacing strategies. View Full-Text
Keywords: world class; age-group; pacing; performance; sex difference world class; age-group; pacing; performance; sex difference
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Moser, C.; Sousa, C.V.; Olher, R.R.; Nikolaidis, P.T.; Knechtle, B. Pacing in World-Class Age Group Swimmers in 100 and 200 m Freestyle, Backstroke, Breaststroke, and Butterfly. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 3875. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17113875

AMA Style

Moser C, Sousa CV, Olher RR, Nikolaidis PT, Knechtle B. Pacing in World-Class Age Group Swimmers in 100 and 200 m Freestyle, Backstroke, Breaststroke, and Butterfly. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(11):3875. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17113875

Chicago/Turabian Style

Moser, Cathia, Caio V. Sousa, Rafael R. Olher, Pantelis T. Nikolaidis, and Beat Knechtle. 2020. "Pacing in World-Class Age Group Swimmers in 100 and 200 m Freestyle, Backstroke, Breaststroke, and Butterfly" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 11: 3875. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17113875

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop