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Article

Comparisons between Manual Lymph Drainage, Abdominal Massage, and Electrical Stimulation on Functional Constipation Outcomes: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

1
School of Health Sciences, Oakland University, 433 Meadow Brook Road, Rochester, MI 48309-4451, USA
2
Physical Therapy Department, University of Michigan-Flint, 2157 WSW Bldg., Flint, MI 48502-195, USA
3
Department of Skin and Health Care, Suseong University, 15 Dalgubeol-daero 528-gil, Suseong-gu, Daegu 13557, Korea
4
Department of Physical Therapy, College of Health and Science, Kangwon National University, 346, Hwangjo-gil, Dogye-eup, Samcheok-si, Gangwon-do 24341, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(11), 3924; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17113924
Received: 19 April 2020 / Revised: 28 May 2020 / Accepted: 29 May 2020 / Published: 1 June 2020
Background: Evidence supports abdominal massage (AM) or electrical stimulation (ES) as effective in treating functional constipation (FC). Manual lymph drainage (MLD) may also be beneficial, however, it was not previously investigated or compared to ES and AM. Methods: Sixteen college-aged males and 36 females were recruited. Participants were randomly assigned to MLD, AM or ES. Heart rate variability (HRV) measures for total power (TP), high frequency (HF), low frequency and LF/HF ratio assessed ANS outcomes. state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI) and stress response inventory (SRI) assessed psychological factors and bowel movement frequency (BMF) and duration (BMD) were recorded daily. Results: MLD significantly improved all ANS measures ( p 0.01 ); AM significantly improved LF, HF and LF/HF ratios (p = 0.04); and ES significantly improved LF (p = 0.1). STAI measures improved, but not significantly in all groups. SRI improved significantly from MLD (p < 0.01), AM (p = 0.04) and ES (p < 0.01), but changes were not significant between groups. BMD improved significantly in all groups ( p 0.02). BMF improved significantly only following MLD and AM (p < 0.1), but differences between groups were not significant (p = 0.39). Conclusions: MLD significantly reduced FC symptoms and MLD had greater improvements than AM or ES. View Full-Text
Keywords: heart rate variability; stress and anxiety; bowel movement; constipation; manual lymph drainage; massage; electrical stimulation heart rate variability; stress and anxiety; bowel movement; constipation; manual lymph drainage; massage; electrical stimulation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Drouin, J.S.; Pfalzer, L.; Shim, J.M.; Kim, S.J. Comparisons between Manual Lymph Drainage, Abdominal Massage, and Electrical Stimulation on Functional Constipation Outcomes: A Randomized, Controlled Trial. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 3924. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17113924

AMA Style

Drouin JS, Pfalzer L, Shim JM, Kim SJ. Comparisons between Manual Lymph Drainage, Abdominal Massage, and Electrical Stimulation on Functional Constipation Outcomes: A Randomized, Controlled Trial. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(11):3924. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17113924

Chicago/Turabian Style

Drouin, Jacqueline S., Lucinda Pfalzer, Jung M. Shim, and Seong J. Kim 2020. "Comparisons between Manual Lymph Drainage, Abdominal Massage, and Electrical Stimulation on Functional Constipation Outcomes: A Randomized, Controlled Trial" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 11: 3924. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17113924

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