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Annual Prevalence, Health Expenditures, and Co-Morbidities Trend of Iron Deficiency Anemia in Korea: National Health Insurance Service Data from 2002 to 2013

by 1,†, 2,† and 3,*
1
Department of Interdisciplinary Program in Biomedical Science, Soonchunhyang University Graduate School, Asan 31538, Korea
2
Department of Food Sciences and Nutrition, Yeonsung University, Anyang 14011, Korea
3
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheon 14584, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work as first author.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(12), 4433; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17124433
Received: 21 May 2020 / Revised: 13 June 2020 / Accepted: 15 June 2020 / Published: 20 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Health Care Sciences & Services)
Despite improvements in nutritional status, iron deficiency anemia (IDA) remains a debilitating nutritional problem worldwide. We estimate annual IDA prevalence rates by sex and age and the trends therein in Korea. We also calculate the health expenditures of IDA and its co-morbidities by analyzing claims data in the National Health Information Database from 2002 to 2013. All analyses were performed based on diagnosis codes of IDA (D50, D50.0, D50.8, and D50.9) regardless of whether IDA was the principal or a coexisting disease. Trends in IDA prevalence rates were evaluated by calculating annual percent changes (APCs) in prevalence. The health expenditures of IDA were calculated based on the direct medical costs (outpatient and hospitalization costs, pharmaceutical costs) and direct non-medical costs (travel costs). The overall IDA prevalence in both sexes increased approximately 2.3-fold from 2002 to 2013; the APC was +7.6%. In females, the prevalence of IDA was highest in aged 30–39 and 40–49 years. The APC was highest in those aged <10 years (+18.2%), followed by those aged ≥80 (+14.7%) and 70–79 (+9.8%) years. In males, the prevalence rates were highest in aged <10 years, followed by those aged ≥60 years. The APC was highest in those aged <10 years (+19.1%), followed by those aged ≥80 years (+10.5%). The total health expenditures increased 2.8-fold during 12 years. Diseases of the respiratory or gastrointestinal tract were the most prevalent co-morbidities in both males and females. The annual prevalence of IDA continues to rise in association with adverse health expenditures and co-morbidities in spite of improvements in nutritional status. Most importantly, infants and young children, the elderly, and females aged 30–49 years are at highest risk of IDA. A national, prospective, and well-organized effort to improve iron status and to manage IDA is required. View Full-Text
Keywords: anemia; iron-deficiency; comorbidity; epidemiology; health expenditures; malnutrition anemia; iron-deficiency; comorbidity; epidemiology; health expenditures; malnutrition
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MDPI and ACS Style

Park, Y.-J.; Lim, H.-S.; Kim, T.-H. Annual Prevalence, Health Expenditures, and Co-Morbidities Trend of Iron Deficiency Anemia in Korea: National Health Insurance Service Data from 2002 to 2013. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 4433. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17124433

AMA Style

Park Y-J, Lim H-S, Kim T-H. Annual Prevalence, Health Expenditures, and Co-Morbidities Trend of Iron Deficiency Anemia in Korea: National Health Insurance Service Data from 2002 to 2013. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(12):4433. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17124433

Chicago/Turabian Style

Park, Yoo-Jin, Hee-Sook Lim, and Tae-Hee Kim. 2020. "Annual Prevalence, Health Expenditures, and Co-Morbidities Trend of Iron Deficiency Anemia in Korea: National Health Insurance Service Data from 2002 to 2013" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 12: 4433. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17124433

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