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Article

Handgrip Strength and Current Smoking Are Associated with Cardiometabolic Risk in Korean Adolescents: A Population-Based Study

1
Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 06591, Korea
2
Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 06591, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(14), 5021; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17145021
Received: 15 May 2020 / Revised: 6 July 2020 / Accepted: 10 July 2020 / Published: 13 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adolescent and Young People's Health Issues and Challenges)
This study aimed to identify the independent association of handgrip strength and current smoking with cardiometabolic risk in adolescents. Data of 1806 adolescents (12–18 years) from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed by complex samples logistic regression analyses. Handgrip strength was normalized by body weight into relative handgrip strength. A cardiometabolic risk index score was calculated from the z-scores of the following components: waist circumference, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, and blood pressure. Relative handgrip strength showed an inverse association with high cardiometabolic risk, with an adjusted odds ratio of 8.5 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.7–19.3) for boys and 5.7 (95% CI, 2.9–11.2) for girls on comparing the lowest and the highest age-and sex-specific quartiles of relative handgrip strength. The adjusted odds ratios for high cardiometabolic risk on comparing the second quartile and the highest quartile of relative handgrip strength were 3.9 (95% CI, 1.7–8.9) in boys and 2.6 (95% CI, 1.3–5.3) in girls. Current smoking was independently associated with high cardiometabolic risk in boys aged 15–18 years. These findings suggest the need to increase muscle strength in adolescents and reduce smoking in older boys to promote cardiometabolic health. View Full-Text
Keywords: muscle strength; cardiovascular diseases; metabolic syndrome; adolescent; smoking muscle strength; cardiovascular diseases; metabolic syndrome; adolescent; smoking
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, S.Y.; Lee, J.S.; Kim, Y.H. Handgrip Strength and Current Smoking Are Associated with Cardiometabolic Risk in Korean Adolescents: A Population-Based Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 5021. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17145021

AMA Style

Kim SY, Lee JS, Kim YH. Handgrip Strength and Current Smoking Are Associated with Cardiometabolic Risk in Korean Adolescents: A Population-Based Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(14):5021. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17145021

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kim, Sae Y., Jung S. Lee, and Yeo H. Kim 2020. "Handgrip Strength and Current Smoking Are Associated with Cardiometabolic Risk in Korean Adolescents: A Population-Based Study" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 14: 5021. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17145021

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