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Article

Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Tick-Borne Diseases in North-Central Wisconsin from 2000–2016

1
Division of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
2
Marshfield Clinic Research Institute, Marshfield, WI 54449, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(14), 5105; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17145105
Received: 29 June 2020 / Revised: 11 July 2020 / Accepted: 13 July 2020 / Published: 15 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GIS and Spatial Modelling for Environmental Epidemiology)
Lyme disease is a well-recognized public health problem in the USA, however, other tick-borne diseases also have major public health impacts. Yet, limited research has evaluated changes in the spatial and temporal patterns of non-Lyme tick-borne diseases within endemic regions. Using laboratory data from a large healthcare system in north-central Wisconsin from 2000–2016, we applied a Kulldorf’s scan statistic to analyze spatial, temporal and seasonal clusters of laboratory-positive cases of human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA), babesiosis, and ehrlichiosis at the county level. Older males were identified as the subpopulation at greatest risk for non-Lyme tick-borne diseases and we observed a statistically significant spatial and temporal clustering of cases (p < 0.05). HGA risk shifted from west to east over time (2000–2016) with a relative risk (RR) ranging from 3.30 to 11.85, whereas babesiosis risk shifted from south to north and west over time (2004–2016) with an RR ranging from 4.33 to 4.81. Our study highlights the occurrence of non-Lyme tick-borne diseases, and identifies at-risk subpopulations and shifting spatial and temporal heterogeneities in disease risk. Our findings can be used by healthcare providers and public health practitioners to increase public awareness and improve case detection. View Full-Text
Keywords: spatial epidemiology; geographic information systems (GIS); SatScan; spatial analysis; tick-borne diseases spatial epidemiology; geographic information systems (GIS); SatScan; spatial analysis; tick-borne diseases
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rau, A.; Munoz-Zanzi, C.; Schotthoefer, A.M.; Oliver, J.D.; Berman, J.D. Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Tick-Borne Diseases in North-Central Wisconsin from 2000–2016. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 5105. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17145105

AMA Style

Rau A, Munoz-Zanzi C, Schotthoefer AM, Oliver JD, Berman JD. Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Tick-Borne Diseases in North-Central Wisconsin from 2000–2016. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(14):5105. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17145105

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rau, Austin, Claudia Munoz-Zanzi, Anna M. Schotthoefer, Jonathan D. Oliver, and Jesse D. Berman. 2020. "Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Tick-Borne Diseases in North-Central Wisconsin from 2000–2016" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 14: 5105. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17145105

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