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Article

Cohort Analysis of Epithelial Cancer Mortality Male-to-Female Sex Ratios in the European Union, USA, and Japan

1
Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, Universitá degli Studi di Milano, 20133 Milan, Italy
2
Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Universitá degli Studi di Milano, 20157 Milan, Italy
3
Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine (IUMSP), Unisanté, University of Lausanne, CH-1010 Lausanne, Switzerland
4
Stony Brook Cancer Center, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA
5
Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Bologna, 40138 Bologna, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(15), 5311; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17155311
Received: 23 June 2020 / Revised: 18 July 2020 / Accepted: 20 July 2020 / Published: 23 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Public Health Statistics and Risk Assessment)
Objective: To illustrate trends in sex ratios in epithelial cancer mortality in the EU, USA, and Japan, with a focus on age-specific and cohort patterns. Methods: We obtained certified deaths and resident populations from the World Health Organisation for the period of 1970–2014 for the USA, Japan, and the EU for 12 epithelial cancer sites. From these, we calculated both the age-specific and age-standardised male-to-female mortality sex ratios. We applied an age-period-cohort model to the sex ratios in order to disentangle the effects of age, period of death, and birth cohort. Results: Age-standardised mortality sex ratios were found to be unfavourable to males, apart from thyroid cancer. The highest standardised rates were in laryngeal cancer: 7·7 in the 1970s in the USA, 17·4 in the 1980s in the EU, and 16·8 in the 2000s in Japan. Cohort patterns likely to be due to excess smoking (1890 cohort) and drinking (1940 cohort) in men were identified in the USA, and were present but less defined in the EU and Japan for the oral cavity, oesophagus, liver, pancreas, larynx, lung, bladder, and kidney. Conclusion: Mortality sex ratio patterns are partly explained by the differences in exposure to known and avoidable risk factors. These are mostly tobacco, alcohol, and obesity/overweight, as well as other lifestyle-related factors. View Full-Text
Keywords: epithelial cancer; mortality; sex ratios; age period cohort; trends epithelial cancer; mortality; sex ratios; age period cohort; trends
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MDPI and ACS Style

Carioli, G.; Bertuccio, P.; Levi, F.; Boffetta, P.; Negri, E.; La Vecchia, C.; Malvezzi, M. Cohort Analysis of Epithelial Cancer Mortality Male-to-Female Sex Ratios in the European Union, USA, and Japan. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 5311. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17155311

AMA Style

Carioli G, Bertuccio P, Levi F, Boffetta P, Negri E, La Vecchia C, Malvezzi M. Cohort Analysis of Epithelial Cancer Mortality Male-to-Female Sex Ratios in the European Union, USA, and Japan. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(15):5311. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17155311

Chicago/Turabian Style

Carioli, Greta, Paola Bertuccio, Fabio Levi, Paolo Boffetta, Eva Negri, Carlo La Vecchia, and Matteo Malvezzi. 2020. "Cohort Analysis of Epithelial Cancer Mortality Male-to-Female Sex Ratios in the European Union, USA, and Japan" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 15: 5311. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17155311

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